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The folloiving pages are devoted to a selection uj modern sculpture 
from the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Collection. 

Mr. H irshhorn owns one of the finest and most extensive collections 
which includes historic objects draivn from ancient western civiliza- 
tions and from primitive cultures, as ivell as a distinguished group of 

It is, Iwwever, his large and unique group of modern sculpture that 
has gained for Joseph H . Hirshliorn the respect, the admiration and 
the envy of art conscious people tliroughout the irorld. An inipDitanl 
part of it— the largest to have been publicly presented— is the subject 
of this exhibition and booh. 

The presentation of ''Modern Sculpture from the Joseph II. Hirshhorn 
Collection" is an event of great importance for ithich The .S'o/okio/i R. 
Guggenheim Museum is most grateful. 

Harry F. Guggenheim, /'resident 

To accommodate the exhibition within the available musemn space and to arrive at a harmonious interplay 
between sculpture and architecture are obvious aims that have determined selection and presentation of 
Guggenheim Museum. The ampleness of the collection far exceeds the capacity of the Museums exhibition 
space even with the scope limited to the modern era and the medium to sculpture. Since reductions beyond 
this point became necessary these were approached with the intention to preserve the balance and the 
emphasis, the range and the personal bias that distinguish the collection as a whole. Daumier, Degas, 
Manzii, Moore, Lipchitz, Smith and other favorite sculptors of Mr. Hirshhorn form islands of great 
concentration in the collection and are therefore also represented in depth in the Guggenheim selection. 
The balance between the collection's already classic portion with Rodin, Bourdelle, Renoir and Matisse, 
to name but a few of the old masters, and Mr. Hirshhorn's demonstrated commitment toward the little 
known and experimental — a balance fundamental to the collector's intentions — was also an element to 
be preserved at all cost in the reduced exhibition version. 

Finally, selection and presentation were determined by the Guggenheim Museum's pducalional urieiitalion. 
an intent to relate, as far as possible, the visual substance of a work of art to its broader historic and 
stylistic framework. 


The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum required a large collective elTort involving tin- (■(ini|>lilc Mu-runi 
staff. The entire undertaking was also dependent upon llu- diligi-iit and informed coiili il>uli(iii> ni.ulc 
throughout tlie project by Mr. Abrani Lerner, Curator of tile Joseph 11. 1 lir^lilidiii ( 'dllcelion. 

Tiiomas M. Messer. Director 

FORE^^ORD .ABRAM LERXER. Curator of the Joseph H. Hirshhorn Collection 

The present exhibition of 4-44 works of modern sculpture from the Hirshhorn Collection is 
the first comprehensive showing of sculptures from the Collection. Three years ago the Detroit Insti- 
tute of Arts exhibited 230 pieces and subsequently 110 of these iiere shown in museums in the Middle 
and Far West. The response was enthusiastic and made all the effort worthwhile, but it tvas disap- 
pointing that New York had no opportunity to see this exhibition. When the Trustees of the Guggen- 
heim Museum suggested a much larger and more comprehensive presentation ivhich would offer an 
even broader survey of modern sculpture, we ivere delighted to cooperate. The result of the collabora- 
tion is the present exhibition. 

Since the text of this book will deal fully with the sculpture, perhaps a few notes on the 
Collection are in order. 

Joseph H. Hirshhorn started his Collection about 30 years ago. Freedom of action, u'hich 
would seem to be a cornerstone of Mr. Hirshhorn s personality, is also characteristic of the private 
collector. This degree of independence is usually not available to most curators and museum directors 
who are responsible to their trustees, budgets, patrons, and history. There is nothing to deter the 
collector from exercising his own prejudices and enthusiasm as long as he can afford them. In conse- 
quence, the private collection has a unique individuality — extravagant in some ways, reserved in 
others. It also has a unique function in that it can complement the historically oriented and carefully 
balanced museum collection by its ivillingness to emphasize particular artists or movements, and to 
welcome the very old or very new with equal ardor. It is free to move in any direction and the degree 
to which it profits from such autonomy is often the index of its quality. 

The Hirshhorn Collection never aimed at an all-inclusive historical survey of sculpture. It 
was and is primarily guided by Mr. Hirshhorn s own inclinations and sensibility, as well as a passion 
for collecting which has long since passed the point of utilitarian need. He most truly fits Sir Herbert 
Read's definition of a collector as ". . . abnormal, a greedy lover of beauty." 


When Mr. Hirshhom acqwxei Ms first sculpture, a piece b-v fokn. FLuuzosstl. he ecideTidr 
felt he leas merely adding to Ms collection a somewkat different kind at art object, oae thai maald 
eomplemeal the paiiitings aad extend Us range of interest. It mms Mi intenlian at Snt to mid mdj 
American pieces to the painting eoQedion Kiiek mas. and stiU is. essemtiaily Aimeiican. In time it 
became evident that tie limited creation of semlptmre. in contrast to lie rdatis^r enonaaas tmtpat 
of modem painting, ^ade it practice and desirabie to add pieces frotm «ff over tie morid. Widk 
great insigki Mr. Hiniioni began to collect Us sealptare at a time mken Sue nieces xere asaSahle 
and interest in tiem negligible. 

In the late thirties and early forties tiere was atdy maid teHeramce of tie atediam. It mas 
collected bv a handful of people and esen tits smM patronage Kent «dde§y to scmlptors of uOler- 
national reputation. There tcere a fetr deeiers trio nesertidess perssted in brining Sne seaipUae 
to the public One of these -eidots kos Curt Valentin, to ariomt lie resist of iaiaest in semlptmre im 
this coantry omes a great debt. It mas aimays a marsdoas experience to cis£r Us smrprisin^y snuM 
quarters aad find beautiful examples of modem sadplure oterSaming fra^ He ^Series into tie 
outer kaUs. For tie collector acio mms perceptise. smd eddbitians mere utwabaaMe lessons in tie 
Ustory and appreciation of sculpture. Jcaepi Birdiiom aros sudk a coBeetar. and miaaeser I 
accompanied Um to tie Valentin Gallery. I knem tiat ie moadd be mmabk to resist O Lt /n iiing m least 
one piece oat of tie many beautiful timgs tiere. 

One of tie daraderistie lUngs abcmt Joseph Hirsiiam is Us susOmned iaierest in an 
artisfs development. Having bou^a Us ^rst Henry Moore ie eomU not resisf mi£ng mem Moores 
as they came to Us attention. He siomed tie same pasistent interest in Matisse. Gm tmtftti_ Epstein. 
David Smith. Manzu and otiers. 

Obvioasty Joseph Hirsiiom Unes sculpture ami 1ms am eye for its best q ma Hn es. Im tie 
presence of a Sne piece ie cannot conceui Us aUiaaiasm. Defers here ami mhimii anM testify la 
this glour icUch is a prelude to battleHnes draxn on suei oeeasioms and xkzck. soater or later. 
results in a transfer of ownersUp. 

Something about tie palpable nature of seulpture. its piysieal presence and pUstidty. makes 
a speciai appeal to ham. Tiere is as ambiguity, a mystery, a mute poetry, that d^^ts Um and 
incites Us interest and curiosity. TUs ias been accompanied by an equall y resdess aeqaasitiratess. 
a groxing inventory of Us journey in appredatiom ami experience. As keeper of tUs great inr^Jaay. 
I tcish to express my pleasure in sedng it made available to tie fmbSc. 

I cannot praise too UgUy lie ^e spirit tiat motivated lUs exUbitiom. Mr. Harry F. Gug- 
genheim. President^ and tie Trustees of Tie Solomon R. Guggemieim Fimmiatiem wtere receptive ^J 
enthusiastic from lie start, and tiey iave our liants for making tie exUUtiom passible and atoAUe 
to the people of tUs dly. Mr. Thomas M. Messer ias directed and instoBei lie exUbitiem vU* tie 
brilliance tiat ias become synonymous aciti Us exUbitioms over lie years. Mr. H. H. Ammsam ias 
produced lie book and mritten an illumimating commentary on lie eoBeeliom ami lie praUems of 
modem sculpture. We cannot be grateful emougi to lie iurd-morka^ stag of lie ■■nt— amd I 
espedaily mish to liank Mr. Danid Robbais miose inleBifenee amd emtkmsiasm aided n large meas- 
ure to tie excellence of lie exUbitiou and lUs book. 


The Joseph H. Hirshhorn Collection of Modern Sculpture is perhaps the most comprehensive 
collection of modern sculpture in existence. Comprising between seven and eight hundred works, 
many of monumental scale and importance, it traces with few omissions the entire development of 
sculpture from Rodin to the present day. It is remarkable not only for its general quality and the 
extent of its coverage, but also for its examination in depth of many of the major masters. Some 
statistics will suggest the degree in which this is true. These statistics cannot be precisely accurate, 
because even as they are quoted, new works are in process of being added. Daumier, the one sculptor 
of the earlier nineteenth century who intrigues Mr. Hirshhorn, is represented by some 37 pieces. 
Rodin is represented by 14 works including a major cast of The Burghers of Calais. There are 7 
Rossos, 5 Bourdelles, 11 Maillols, 17 Degas, 6 Renoirs, 10 Picassos, 12 Matisses, 9 Arps, 9 Duchamp- 
Villons, 13 Lipchitzes, 17 Giacomettis, 11 Marinis, 26 Manzus, and 51 Henry Moores. Other leading 
sculptors such as Brancusi, Laurens, Lehmbruck, Archipenko, Hajdu, and Hepworth are each repre- 
sented by several examples. 

Equally impressive is the coverage of newer directions in European and American 
sculpture. Mr. Hirshhorn is constantly looking at and buying the works of younger sculptors. There 
is probably no collection, public or private, which contains so thorough a representation of the 
newest experiments in the sculpture of today. 

The comprehensiveness of the collection has suggested the form of the present book. It is 
arranged as a picture history of modern sculpture, with the illustrations placed in a generally chron- 
ological order by artist, movement, and country. The brief commentary, accompanying the illustra- 
tions, attempts in available space to suggest some of the problems with which sculptors have been 
concerned, and to describe some of the characteristics of the works illustrated. No attempt has been 
made to discuss every artist or every work of art. However, the grouping of artists and works in the 
illustrations will emphasize their particular stylistic directions. 

Biographies of the artists and the checklist of the exhibition are arranged alphabetically 
after the illustrations. These are followed by a selective bibliography. 


COMMENTARY h h arnason 

Sculpture in the twentieth century has emerged as a major art for the first time since the 
seventeenth century. Its development in the last sixty years is even more remarkable than that of 
twentieth century painting. The revolution of modern painting was achieved against the background 
of an unbroken, great tradition extending back to the fourteenth century. In the nineteenth century, 
despite the prevalence and the substantial role played by lesser academicians, painting remained 
the single, great visual art, producing during the first seventy-five years masters such as Goya. David, 
Ingres, Gericault, Delacroix, Blake, Constable, Turner, Corot, Courbet, and Manet. The leading 
names in sculpture during this same period were Canova, Thorwaldsen, Rude. David d'Angers, 
Barye, Carpeaux, Dalou, Falguiere, and Meunier. Of these only perhaps Carpeaux has a continuing 
reputation, and he more on the basis of his sketches than for his sentimental genre or monumental 
decorative works. The sculpture of Dauniier, now much admired, was a private art. little known or 
appreciated until its rediscovery in the twentieth century. 

The eighteenth century was also an age of painting rather than sculpture. During that 
century only the sculptor Jean Antoine Houdon may be compared with painters such as Watteau. 
Boucher, Fragonard, Guardi, Tiepolo. or Gova. The seventeenth century, and then principallv in 
the person of Bernini, was the last great age of sculpture before the twentieth. In ihr I'nited States, 
with the exception of one or two men of originality and high competence, such as St. Gaudens. 
sculptors were only secondary figures from the beginning of our history until well into the twentieth 

When we consider the dominant place which sculpture has held in the iiistory of art from 
ancient Egvpt until the seventeenth century of our era, this decline is all the more remarkable. The 
decline was not for want of patronage. Although the eighteenth century provided fewer monu- 
mental public commissions than the Renaissance or Baroque, the nineteenth century saw mountains 
of sculptural innniirnciits crowding the parks ami |iiiMic squares or adorning llic ailiiterlurr of tin- 
period. By this time, however, academic classicism had achieved such a rigid grip on the sculptural 
tradition that it was literally inqjossible for a sculptor to pain a commission or even to survive unless 
he conformed. The experimental painter could usually find a small group of enlightened private 
patrons, llnweycr. the very nature ol the x nlplnral inciliuin and llie Iradition ol ninclccMlh century 
sculpture as a monumental and public art made this more diflicull for llu- siul|ilnr. 



This was the situation until the third quarter of the century, when Rodin emerged on the 
scene. It is the achievement of Rodin ahuost single-handed to have recharted the course of sculpture 
and to have given the art an impetus that was to lead to a major renaissance in the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. There is no one painter, not even Courbet, Manet, Monet, Cezanne, 
Van Gogh or Gauguin who quite occupies the place in modern painting which Rodin occupies in mod- 
ern sculpture. He began his revolution, as had Courbet in painting, with a reaction against the senti- 
mental idealism of the academicians, through the closest return to nature. The Man with the Broken 
Nose { 1864) (No. 387 t was rejected by the Salon because it was offensively realistic. The re-examin- 
ation of nature was coupled with a re-examination of the art of the Middle Ages and of the 
Renaissance, most specifically Donatello and Michelangelo. Although much of academic sculpture 
paid homage to the High Renaissance, it was the High Renaissance seen through centuries of 
imitative accretions which largely concealed the original works. Rodin looked at Donatello and 
Michelangelo as though they were masters of his own time to whom he was apprenticed, and thus he 
achieved the anomaly of turning its own gods against the academic tradition. 

The achievement of Rodin in the liberation of modern sculpture is one of degree rather than 
of kind. It is possible to find prototypes or analogies among his contemporaries for his treatment of 
subject matter, space, volume, movement, light, and material. However, in no other sculptor of the 
nineteenth century are all the elements and problems of sculpture attacked with comparable energy, 
imagination, and invention. In no other sculptor can be found such brilliant solutions. 

The basic medium of expression of sculpture from the beginning of time until the twentieth 
century has been the human figure. It is in terms of the figure, presented in isolation or in combina- 
tion, in action or in repose, that the sculptor has explored the elements of sculpture — space, mass, 
volume, line, texture, light, and movement. Of these elements, volume and space and their interaction 
have been traditionally the primary concern of the sculptor. In terms of this interaction, the history 
of most of the great periods of sculpture may be written. If the cycles of Classical Greek and 
Hellenistic sculpture, Romanesque and Gothic, and Renaissance and Baroque, are traced, in all three 
may be observed a comparable development from the early or archaic frontality to the ultimate stage 
of figures existing as articulated, three-dimensional masses in fully realized three-dimensional space. 
With the exception of certain works of Bernini such as the Ecstasy of St. Theresa, the final solution 
of most of the cycles of sculptural history has characteristically involved the figure as a relatively 
coherent central mass revolving in. and in some degree interpenetrated by surrounding space. 


The greater sense of spatial existence in Hellenistic, Late Gothic or Baroque sculpture also 
inevitably involved an increased sense of implied movement, achieved bv the twisting pose, the 
extended gesture, or frequently by a broken, variegated surface texture whose light and shadow 
accentuated the feeling of transition or change. 

The Baroque feeling for spatial existence and movement was part of the nineteenth centurv 
sculptural tradition, particularly in the monumental works of Carpeaux and Dalou: and Rodin was 
in possession of the full range of historic sculptural forms by the time he returned from his brief 
visit to Italy in 187.5. The Man with the Broken Nose of 1864 was already a mature and accomplished 
work suggesting the tragic intensity of the artist's approach to subject as well as his uncanny ability 
to suggest simultaneously the malleable properties of the original clay and the light saturated tensile 
strength of the final bronze material. 

The Crouching Woman ( 1882) (No. 390) is one of the many individual figures inspired bv 
the experiments of The Gales of Hell,^ on which Rodin had begun to work in 1880. The Gates them- 
selves, which occupied the artist until his death in 1917, and even then had not reached a final form, 
suffer from the very fertility of the ideas and the variety of the forms with which they are crannned. 
Nevertheless they are of the greatest significance in the artist's later career and in the history of 
modern sculpture. Saturated as they are with literarv svmbolism to the point where thev almost cease 
to exist as any sort of sculptural totality, they nevertheless contain a vast repertoire of forms and 
images which the sculptor developed in this context and then adapted to other uses. The liirbiilcnce 
of the subject involved inspired him to the exploration of expressionist violence in \\hirli llic human 
figure was bent and twisted to the limits of endurance, although with rciiiarkaliK lillli- ailual 
naturalistic distortion. 

The violent plav on the luiman inslrument seen here was a nalural |ircanilili- In Ihc expres- 
sionist distortions of llie (Iguie wliiili Ikivc (lr\clci|ic(l in llic Iwcniiclli crnlur\. \n cm-ii more 
suggestive preamble is l<i he f<uinil in llie basic concept of ihe entire subieel of Tlic Galrs llic 
concept of flux or metamorphosis, in which ihc figures emerge from or sink into the matrix of the 
bron/c itself, are in process of birth from, or death and decay into a quagmire which liolh liberates 
and tlircalens to engulf tlicni. 

The Crouching II o/inin looks at lirst glance like an cxtrenir of analomiial dislorlioii. 
Actually, there is little distortion iiuohoil. ami llir piisc. \\liii li rould have lieen ngl\ or ludicrous, 
achieves in Rodin's hands a beauU that is rooted in intense sullcriug. Ihc figuic. a cornpacl. I\\isled 

1 Rodin iMiisi'Uni, I'aris. 

mass, is wonderfully realized in and expressive of surrounding space. The powerful diagonals, the 
enveloping arms, the broken twist of the head, all serve both an expressive and a formal purpose, 
emphasizing the agony of the figure and carrying the eye around the mass in a series of completely 
integrated views. 

The Iris (1890-91) (No. 392) achieves an even greater violence of pose, carrying the 
sensuality which characterized so many of the later figures to the point of brutality. The headless, 
one armed torso, by its maimed and truncated form, reaches a height of expressive vitality. The Iris 
is probably a sketch, but one which arrived in this form at a completeness to which nothing could be 
added. The sketches of Rodin in their rough immediacy and directness have a natural appeal to the 
twentieth century artist. However, their presentation in posthumous casts, as finished works of the 
artist, tends frequently to distort his actual intention. 

The portrait sculptures of Rodin represent a chapter in themselves in their search for per- 
sonality or for symbol statements. The Balzac in its final form was an exploration of the nature of 
genius, expressed through the means of sculptural "impressionism." The many preliminary versions, 
on the other hand, represented various attempts to recreate the appearance and the personality of 
Balzac and gradually from these sketches to approach a generalized statement. (Nos. 393, 394) 
Whether the final Balzac is or is not a success purely as a sculptural form, it is perhaps the closest 
approximation of nineteenth century sculpture to a purelv abstract svmbol. 

If, of Rodin's sculptures, the Balzac most closely approximates some of the ideals of 
twentieth century expressionist sculpture. The Burghers of Calais (1884-88) (No. 391) sums up most 
successfully his transformation of the past into a monument that is both contemporary and personal. 
The debt of the Burghers to the fourteenth and fifteenth century sculptures of Claus Sluter and 
Claus de Werve is apparent, l;)ut this influence has been combined with an assertion of the 
dignity of the common man, analogous to the sculptures of Meunier. The rough-hewn faces, the 
powerful bodies, the enormous hands and feet transform these burghers into laborers and peasants 
and at the same time greatly enhance their expressive power. The tendency of Rodin to dramatic 
gesture is also apparent here, and the theatrical element is emphasized by the highly unorthodox 
organization, with the figures scattered about the base like a group of stragglers wandering across a 
stage. The informal, open arrangement of the figures is actually one of the most daring and original 
aspects of the sculpture. It is a direct attack on the entire classical tradition of closed, balanced 
groupings in monumental sculpture. The detached placing of the masses gives to the intervening 
spaces an importance which for almost the first time in modern sculpture reverses the traditional 
roles of solid and void, of mass and space. Space not only surrounds the figures but completely 
interpenetrates the group to create a balance which anticipates some of the most revolutionary inno- 
vations of twentieth century sculpture. 


Koilin: 387. Man II ith Hrnln-n Aiwc, Mash. 



Rodin: 39L The Burghers oj Calais. 




Roflin: 391. The Burghers nj Calais, Details, Pierre rte Weissant (above). .lean de Fiennes (below). 

Rodin; 391. The Burghers of Calais. Dclail, F.uslaL-lic di' Si. I'iiTic 

Rodin: 390. Crouchins Woman. 

Rodin: .102. Iris. Messenger oj ihc Cmh. 



Rodin : 396. Head of Baudelaire. 

lioilin; .lOr;. Iliisl iti Halzar. Di'lnil. llrail. 


Rodin: 397. Torso and Detail. 


Maillol, also one of the major figures of early modern sculpture, began his career as a 
painter. At the opposite extreme from the violent variety of Rodin, he concentrated his whole 
attention on a restatement of the classic ideal of sculpture, stripped of all the academic accretions of 
sentimental or erotic synthetic idealism, and brought down to earth in the homely actuality of his 
models. Concentrating almost exclusively on the subject of the single female figure, standing, sitting, 
or reclining, and almost always in repose, he stated over and over again the fundamental thesis of 
sculpture as integrated volume, as mass surrounded by tangible space. At the same time, the nudes 
of Maillol always contain the breath of life, a healthv sensuousness which reflects the living model 
rather than any abstract classical ideal. ( Nos. 248-251 ) 

Medardo Rosso also began as a painter and in his sculpture, he, in a sense, alwavs remained 
a painter. Even in his most impressionist works, Rodin never entirely abandoned his sense of 
sculptural mass. Thus it is perhaps wrong even to refer to him as an impressionist. Rosso, on the 
other hand, deliberately dissolved the scul|)tural forms until onlv an impression remained. His 
favorite medium of wax allowed the most imperceptible transitions so that it becomes difficult to tell 
at exactly what point the wax becomes the face or the figure. Form is dissolved into amorphous 
shape and light-filled, vari-textured surface. The very subjects, detailed genre scenes, conversation 
pieces, stretch the limits of traditional sculpture. Still, in his freshness of vision, his abilitv to catch 
and record the significant moment, Rosso added a new dimension to sculpture and anticipated the 
search for immediacy which characterizes the experimental sculpture of our own day. I Nos. -103-409) 

Antoine Bourdelle. like Maillol. sought a revitalizing of tiic classical tradition. However, his 
approach involved an eclectic, somewhat archaeological return to the s|)iiil and lurrns of arciiaic ami 
early fifth century Creek sculpture, as well as to those of Cothic sculpture. A yiuillihil pm trail Imst. 
La Marquise (1886) (No. 35) has a serenity which is both classic in feeling and rcminiscci\l ol 
portraits by Houdon. The Warrior I No. 37) from the Moniunenl lo ihr Fiahlers at Montauban 
(1873-1896) represents the moment of greatest indebtedness to Rodin, ami \( ith all its innnense 
power of gesture points to the danger of an attempt lo nul l?i>diii Rodin. This could only lead lo 
theatricality, a danger from \\hich Bourdelle was rescued by his conscious rcUirn lo anliciuily alter 
1900. The Head of Apollo I 1900) (No. 36) is a key work in this return, coinbining as it does a 
consciouslv archaic quality with vitality which makes it more than a mere eclectic adaptation 
of anliipiilv. 

The torso of the figure called /'n/(V or I'onioiui i I'll I) (No. 38) relates mass and spatial 
existence to a (lowing, linear niovcincnl of conlour. Allhough this work and others of Bourdelle's 
female nude figures may be compared with Maillol, they are always clearly individual in their restless 
activity achieved through the accent on moving outlines. 

The mosi imnicdialc inhcrilor of llic liaililion ol Maill'l \\ as ("liarlis Dopian. a limili-cl l>nl 
sensitive arlisl. His figure studies achieve a repose, a withdrawn elegance which transcends even that 
of Maillol. and his portrait heads have the reticence of ulmosi siniplitiialion in modelling, the 
elimiiuUion of all extraneous details. (Nos. 126-128) 


Maillol: 251. A'y/np/i. 

Maillol: 250. Kneeling Node. Maillol: 219. Ynnlli. 


- --mW 

'^**%.^f^«sji:*' ,....^^ 


Rosso: 404. Came Altrui. 

Kosso: 407. i'lcA; Man in Hospital. 

Rosso: 108. The Book- Maker. 


'WSiy /' 







ar ~ 




Bourdelle: 35. La Marquise. Bourdelle: 38. Torso of Figure Called Fruit. 

Rinirtlrilr: M. If arrior. 




Bourdelle; 36. Head of Apollo. 

Di'spiuu: 12f!. Pariniil al Mnir. Drniiii. Dospiau: 126. MIU'. /?. (/?iaiir/iini>. 



One of the most indicative symptoms of the revival of sculpture at the end of the nineteenth 
century is the number of important painters who practiced sculpture. Gauguin, Degas, Renoir, 
Bonnard were among them, followed in this century by Picasso, Matisse, Modigliani, Braque, Derain, 
Leger, and many others. Maillol and Rosso were both first painters before they became sculptors. 
The pioneer sculptor-painter of the nineteenth century was Daumier, who lived between 1810 and 
1879. Most of his wonderful caricature heads were created in 1830-32 and anticipate late Rodins in 
the directness of the deeply modelled surfaces. (Nos. 65-81) The Ratapoil (18.50) (No. 82) is a com- 
pletely realized sculpture. The arrogance and tawdry elegance of the pose is presented in terms of 
spatial existence and movement in which the fluttering, light-filled flow of the clothes acts as 
counterpoise to the bony armature of the figure itself. 

The sculpture of Daumier is a prototype but not an influence for the beginnings of modern 
sculpture, since it was little known by the sculptors of the first generation. The same is true of the 
sculpture of Degas, most of which was never publicly exhibited during his lifetime. Degas is unques- 
tionably the greatest of the late nineteenth century sculptor-painters. His sculptures were conceived 
in sculptural terms, concerned with the fundamental formal problems of sculpture. Both his horses 
and his dancers rejjresent continual experiments in space and movement. The posthumous bronzes 
retain the sense of the original wax material, built up, layer by layer to a surface in which every 
fragment of wax is clearly articulated. The genre scenes, such as The Masseuse (1896-1911) (No. 
110), seem at first to be curious translations of genre painting into sculpture. However, they also, on 
closer analysis, assert a sculptural mass in a complex spatial interplay. (Nos. 102-113) 

Renoir's sculptures, created towards the end of his life, are more directly translations of his 
late paintings. Since, however, these paintings strongly emphasize sculptural modelling of the 
figures, the translation is a logical and natural one, and the sculptures emerge as simplified, classically 
massive figures in repose or in slow movement. The tradition is that of late antiquity seen through 
the classic peasants of Maillol, the accent on sculptural mass in repose rather than of space or 
movement. (Nos. 375-379) 


Diuiiiiii-r: 77. J.c \ ic(i\ l-'inaiid [ RoytT-ColIard) . 


Dauraier: 82. he Ratapoil. 2 Views. 

naiiiniii : %. /.c Ruse (I (VmhcM. Oiiuniur: 66. L'llommc I'l Ti'lv I'laic I I'rlei i/c la tojereK 




Gauguin: 163. Tahitian Figure. Degas: 110. The Masseuse, 

Di-gas: 111. DaniiT Holilin:: Her Wia/i' l-'ool anil D.luil. Iloail. 


Degas: 112. Dancer Holding Her Right Foot. Degas: 115. Pregnant Woman. 

Dogus: 107. Dam er. Arabesiiue Over Riglil Le, 



Renoir: 375. Small Standing Venus. Kenoir: 377. Head oj a W^oman (above). Renoir: 376. Portrait of Mme. Renoir (below) . 


Wilhelm Lehmbruck, who worked in Paris between 1910 and 1914, also showed in works 
like the Torso (1910-11) (No. 233 I the influence of Mailiol. However, the tragic face of this figure 
reflects a personal expression which becomes more explicit in the great Kneeling Woman I 1911 I. - 
The Head of a Girl (1913) (No. 234) and the Inclined Torso (1913) (No. 235) illustrate the 
Romanesque elongation which Lehmbruck used for the suggestion of inward suffering. These are 
works of delicate power, withdrawn and filled with a spirit of melancholy, works in which the contour 
line assumes a major significance in the definition of the volumes of the figure. The elongation of 
these figures, which is presented with such natural ease that it does not seem like distortion, repre- 
sents a major break from the control of realistic proportions. 

The German expressionist sculptors represented a wide variety of points of vieu allluiugii in 
general they did not depart very far from nature in the direction of expressive distortion or of 
abstraction. Barlach looked back for his sources to German medieval art as well as to the folk art of 
Germany and Russia. His fondness for groups of interacting figures is suggestive of the wood carv- 
ings of peasants. These are sculptures of simple vet strongiv fcU rninliini \i)\f. suOcriiig. :niger. 
humor, stated with the broadness of caricature, in terms of highly simplified sculptural masses fre- 
quently expressing iheir cmotir>ns in Icrnis of a single, encompassing movement of the mass. ( Nos. 

Kathe K ol I w i I/, although best known as a gr;i|ilnc ,n (i-l. dllainrd In her sculpt uir ci prolniinil 
sense of scniplnial mass as an expressive medium. I in- rrlici Muli)lurcs arc i-om|iacl. masshi' 
fragments, filled with feeling which is both intensified and coMtrollcd by tiic economy ol tiie means. 
The I'iein (19,'xS) (No. 221) transforms the intertwined figures into a solid pyramid of closely 
integrated forms whose densitv heightens the passionate expression of grief and sufTering. 

GciIkhcI Marclss {niiliniirs I'.ailarli's carlln i|iKilil\ of Immur in groups, animals, and single 
figures. The Sealed Girl I 19,i3) (No. 270) and Ctrl iiilli liniuls I I'lilll (No. 27.'i 1 whose blocked 
out, heavy featured. |)casanl faces have all the nai\e charm of German medieval sculpture, achieve in 
the figures an awkward adolescent grace, presented w ith overtones of cubist control. 

- Miisc'uni of Modern An. N.'w \mk -15 


Lehmbruck: 235. Inclined Torso of a Woman. 

Lfliiiibnuk: 23'1. //<W of a Girl. I.clinil>nn-k : "J.t.l. Torso. 


Barlach : 25. Two Monks Reading 

Bailach: 22. Kiissiaii flcgiinr ll'nmnn. Matari-: 287. Hcrlinins BnllmK-. 



KoUwitz: 221. Mother and Child (Pietci) 

Kollwilz: 210. Sell Portrait. 



Marcks: 276. Seated Girl. Marcks: 275. Girl With Braids. 


The scene of the major revolution in modern sculpture, like that in modern painting during 
the first years of the twentieth century, was Paris. One of the first great figures was Brancusi. an 
artist who created no school, but who strongly affected the course of subsequent sculpture. Although 
the development of his sculpture traces a continuing search for the essences of forms which was a 
continuing reaction against the complexity and literary subject of Rodin, Brancusi still admired 
Rodin and admitted him to be the master of the new sculpture. His own sculpture, however, moved 
constantly towards an intensive examination of a few, fundamental forms in terms of which he 
sought to define the nature of sculpture itself. 

A Rodinesque Sleeping Muse (1906),'* whose naturalistic features emerged imperceptiblv 
from the unshaped marble, became the Sleeping Muse (1909-11 1 (No. 39), an egg-shaped form with 
sharply delineated features repeating the ovoid contours, balanced lightly on a flat plane. This in 
turn became the teardrop Prometheus I c. 1911) (No. 40) with features almost disappearing into 
the volume of the head. The process of simplification was continued in subsequent works until all 
extrusions were eliminated and there remained an egg shape to symbolize not only the beginning 
of the world but in a specific sense the beginning of sculpture. 

In his search for essences, Brancusi pointed the way for twentieth century sculptors. He was 
never really an abstractionist, because there was always in his works a subject idea, reduced to a 
single fundamental. Thus, birds became the idea of flight; fish, the motion of swimming: a cock, 
the cock's comb or the cock's crow. 

The simplification of forms involved not onlv the esseiilial slalenient of a subject, Inil the 
essential statenieril of the nature of materials and of the nature of sculpture ilsell. For Brancusi the 
nature of his materials must be stated without qualification. In the carlv archaic heads and figures 
the rough block of the stone defines the image. The marbles and bronzes emphasize the curving 
forms with a lliiish of the highesi polish. The finish is further eniphasized by contrast \( ilh bases of 
rough stone or roughlv hewn uood, {Torso of a ) oiing Mini. 1921 I I No. II l The great wooden 
totems remain tree trunks shaped with the axe. 

All the sculptures of Brancusi are, finall\. slalernriils in llicir essences ol masses and 
volumes existing in and defining llirec-dimensional space. Thus, in form, icuilrnl. .iiul nialerials. 
Brancusi lil)erale<l scnlplure from llu' lilcrarv illii>ii>ni>iii nl llir nineteenth century. Koilin eidisted 
their own classical gods in his light against ihc ac ailcmicians. Brancusi refined the classical ideal to 
its ultimate essence. 

■1 Nol in i-\liibiti(m 53 

, v^-^ "^,i-i'„„i,. 


Brancusi: Z9. Sleeping Muse (above). 

Brancusi: 40. Prom ei/ieus (below). 

Hranrusi: 41. Torso of a Young Man. 



Although his contribution was a unique one and throughout his life he seems a curiously 
isolated figure, Brancusi was not alone in his search for absolutes. The revolutions in painting of 
post-impressionism, fauvism, and cubism were accompanied by comparable revolutions in sculpture. 
In painting, the cubists, beginning in 1907 with Picasso and Braque, sought to destroy finally the 
Renaissance concept of a painting as an imitation of the natural world, as a window opening out 
into naturalistic space. They wished to assert for the painting its own identity, its own pictorial space 
arising out of its own physical nature as a flat canvas surface to which pigment is applied. Their 
explorations led Braque and Picasso first to geometric, Cezanne-like landscapes, then to highly 
sculptural figure studies. By 1910, three-dimensional, sculptural modelling had disappeared, the 
color had been deliberately subordinated to a close harmony of greys, browns, and greens, and the 
subject (figure or still life) had been transposed into a linear geometry of intersecting and frequently 
transparent planes, a sort of 'grid' moving within a confined depth from the frontal plane of 
the painting. 

In sculpture the problem was a comparable search for the fundamentals of sculptural form 
through stripping off all the illusionistic accretions of the Renaissance tradition. Brancusi was 
carrying on his similar explorations but they were not as familiar to the younger experimental 
sculptors as were the cubist innovations of the painters. Cubism, with its strict geometry of spatial 
analysis, seemed immediately applicable to the problem in sculpture, and was quickly adapted. The 
first cubist sculptors were affected not only by cubist painting but, like the cubist painters, by the 
discovery of African primitive sculpture. Picasso's Head of a Woman (1906) (No. 366) in the brutal 
geometry of the features shows in sculpture the same debt to African sculpture as is to be found in 
the paintings of 1907 and 1908. His Head of Fernande Olivier (Cubist Head) (1909) (No. 368) is 
a literal translation into sculpture of a cubist painted head. The Head of Fernande Olivier is most 
important historically as the first cubist sculpture. However, some question may be raised in what 
degree the deep, geometric faceting of the surface actually enhances or clarifies the sculptural form. 

The same question may be asked concerning Archipenko's first cubist sculptures. There is no 
question that Archipenko was the pioneer cubist sculptor. In works such as the Seated Female Nude 
(1909) (No. 3) his use of a barely suggested geometric structure gives to the elegant revolving 
figure a firmness which prevents it from becoming purely decorative. By 1912, Archipenko had fully 
realized the implications of cubism for sculpture and had made contributions of the highest 
significance by opening up voids within the sculptured figure to the point where the historic concept 
of a sculpture as a solid surrounded by space was completely reversed. Now for the first time in 


I'icasso : .%!!. llcai! nj Ffniniiilr IVivirr ( Cubist lleml i . ncliiil pufic 85. 

history, a sculpture became a series of voids or spaces shaped and defined by solid outlines. In 1913 
Archipenko made another great contribution in adapting to sculpture the new technique of collage 
and beginning to make constructions out of difTerent materials such as wood, glass, and metal. 
Although the Medrano figures which he constructed during the next few years tend as sculptures 
towards the mannered and the decorative, the technique which he devised was of immense importance 
in opening the way to the entire field of sculpture as construction, sculpture as space rather 
than as mass. 

The artist of greatest unfulfilled talent among the first cubist sculptors was Duchamp-Villon, 
whose tremendous potential was cut off at his early death in 1918. However, the limited number of 
works he left behind are not only revolutionary in their exploration of new aspects of sculptural 
form, space and movement, they are in their own right sculptural masterpieces. The Torso of a 
Young Man (1910) (No. 131) uses cubist geometry to reiterate and strengthen a classic ideal of the 
figure. The Head of Baudelaire (1911) (No. 132) has the repose and classic structure of ancient 
Greek sculpture, achieved by the balance and extreme simplification of the features integrated into 
the strongly articulated skull. The Seated Woman (1914) (No. 137) combines a traditional twisting 
pose with integrated curves and planes to reach a complete three-dimensional spatial existence. This 
figure has now moved substantially towards abstraction, and the final step is reached in the great 
Horse and the Head of a Horse (1914) (No. 136). The various preliminary versions of The Horse 
such as Horse and Rider (1914) (No. 135) and The Little Horse (1914) (No. 138) trace the develop- 
ment of the idea from a flowing, curvilinear, relatively representational study to the complete 
abstraction of all elements into the final, powerful statement of diagonal planes, concave and convex 
shapes moving, unfolding and integrating space into the mass of the sculpture. Although their 
approach and their solutions are quite different, Duchamp-Villon sought the same essence as did 
Brancusi. By continually stripping away all extraneous details he came at last to complete sculptural 
experience. The portrait head became a mask of few related shapes, lines, volumes (Head of 
Professor Gosset, 1917) (No. 1391; the recognizable Horse and Rider became the abstract space 
machine of the final Horse. 

No other sculptor has explored the entire range of possibilities in cubist sculpture as has 
Jacques Lipchitz, and yet cubism is only one chapter in his extensive and brilliant career. In 1913 
he introduced some geometric stylization into a series of figure sculptures; and by 1915 was 
producing a wide variety of cubist works in stone, bronze, and wood construction. The bronze Head 
(1915) (No. 237) is stripped down to a single rectangular mass penetrated by a few diagonal planes 
and concave accents. The Bather (1915) (No. 238) achieves attenuated elegance with vertical planes 


accented by curved voids at top and bottom. The bronze Reader ( 1919) ( No. 239) and the Reclining 
Nude with Guitar (1928) (No. 242) summarize his more massive and complicated cubism of the 
twenties which also involved an increasing accent on the expression of the subject. Lipchitz con- 
tinued to use geometric structure in the monumental figure compositions of the thirties, but here 
the expressive content became paramount and gradually led to the free, baroque modelling of 
his later works. 

The cubist sculptures of Henri Laurens retain generally a strong sense of the subject, whether 
still life or figure. The frequent use of color, beautifully and soberly integrated into low relief or 
free standing stone blocks, accentuates the relation between cubist painting and sculpture. Many of 
the cubist sculptors experimented with color, as the cubist painters sought relief effects with collage. 
Laurens' cubist works explore most particularly problems of mass in sculpture. By the late twenties 
his interest had shifted to the creation of volumes without mass and he had begun to compose in the 
curvilinear, moving rhythms of his later style. (Maternity, 1932) (No. 231) 

Zadkine has never really deserted cubism, although from the very beginning his cubist 
sculptures took on expressionist overtones. The marble Mother and Child I c. 1913 ) ( No. 438 ) 
illustrates the massive closed quality of his first works. Positive and negative spaces are interchanged 
and the whole is exceptionally tightly organized. However, the interest in the formal elements does 
not prevent an intense statement of the mother-child relationship, which makes of this essentially a 
subject sculpture. He has a particularly fine feeling for the quality of wood, and his wooden 
sculptures [Female Torso) (No. '140) retain the compact, living bulk of the tree form. His later 
sculptures move more and more to a mannered expression, involving elaborations of geometric 
and curvilinear shapes. {Standing Figure, 192.5-28) (No. J39) Although the figures are constructed 
out of a vast variety of semi-architectural fragments, solids interpenetrated bv voids, line? plavini; 
over surfaces, they are still essentially human figures, actors — gesturing, writhing and sutlering. 

Cubism was one of the greatest liberating forces for sculpture in history, ll openeil the 
IKith to new subjects other than the human figure; it led the way to complete abstraction; it ilclined 
the nature of sculpture as an art of mass, volume, and space; and it developed new possibilities in 
the utilization and expansion of these elements. 

Although working independently of the culiists. Otto Freundlich ilcM'lnped a nioiiurneiital 
sculpture of comparable simplified, regularized masses, as early as l')12. A similar and liigliK 
impressive use of regular cubic or cylindrical masses is the building up ol innniiiiu-ntal ligurcs li\ 
the Austrian. Wotrulia {Figure iiilh Rdisfil Anns. I9.5()-.S7) (No. 1371. I",\cn closer in spirit and 
forms to I'Vcundh'c ll is the Argentine s(iil|ilor. Alicia I'enallui. I Ihc Spcirhlrr. j'l.iT i i \ci. .id! i 



Picasso: 367. Head of a Woman. 

AnliipiMiko: 1. f'rninir Torso. Anhipi'iikci: 3. Svaletl Female Nude. 



Duchamp-Villon: 131. Torso of a Young Man. 

DuchainpX illiiii: K^7. Si'iileii Woman. 2 Views. 




Duchamp-Villon : 139. Head of Professor Cosset. Duchamp-Villon: 134. Maggy. 

l)iU'hani|iViUon: 1.^2. HcaJ i)/ Baudelaire. 


-i-ry^ •^►-7-^^x.¥y~y"'"j:«<j.-?5<»w.';:^^'~ —■p^T'i^y'^i-i'^'^^ " 


Duchamp-Villon: 136. Head of a Horse. 

niiiluini|i\ illiin: l.'ili. l.illJf llnrar. Dui'liainp-Villon : l.'iS. Horse anil RiHer. 



Lipchitz: 242. Reclining Nude With Guitar. 




■^ t '■ 



Lipi-hilz: TM. Rmih-r. 

Lipchilz; 238. lialher. 

Lipchil/.: 237. Hrad. 



Wotruba: 437. Figure With Raised Arms. 

Laurens:, 229. Ciiilar nitcl Clarinvl. 

Laurens: 231. Malernih. 

IHHi^HB' ijlt 

^^^■Pf- M 

Jl ^Mi 


H r_J 

»9k ^^b ^BSBKK/Kl 



^^^^^^^^^^ ^^_^ 

UMaSitKf;- '^MH^^ 






Zadkine; 440. Female Torso. Zadkine: 438. Mother and Child (above). Zadkine: 4.39. Standing Figure, 


_i^ .,. 

Ptnalba: 361. The Sparkler. 


Of the twentieth century sculptor-painters, Matisse has perhaps made the most consistent 
statement in sculptural terms. His Bust of a Woman (1900) (No. 289) uses an impressionist play of 
light over the entire surface to create a curious and ambiguous sense of character; and thus is still 
close to an effect that is painterly. However, the Slave (1900-03) (No. 290), inspired by Rodin's 
Walking Man, is a solid and powerful sculptural mass whose deeply modelled surface accentuates 
the mass. Works like the Decorative Figure (1903) (No. 291), the Large Seated Nude (1907) (No. 
296) and Reclining Nude (c. 1919) (No. 298) use the classical contraposto, the twisting pose of the 
figure, to create spatial existence, in a manner reminiscent of the late Renaissance. The Two Negresses 
{ 1909) (No. 297) again employs a traditional motif popular in the Renaissance, of showing the figure 
front and back, in a group of the greatest structural strength. The sculptures of the late twenties 
and thirties continue to express space through the twist of the figure, and, eliminating or sub- 
ordinating surface, light, texture, reach an even greater degree of expression of the sculptural mass. 
(Reclining Nude No. 2, c. 1929, and Venus in the Shell, 1931) (Nos. 299, 300) 

The sculpture of Modigliani was influenced by Brancusi and by primitive or archaic art. 
However, he was able to absorb these influences into a highly personal expression in the elongated 
and spiritual heads whose volumes are so wonderfully expressive of the rough stone blocks from 
which they emerge. (Nos. 307, 308) 

Picasso's sculptures throughout his life have been essentially brilliant adaptations of his 
paintings, becoming more or less sculptural in the degree that the pictorial experiments variously 
lent themselves to sculptural effects. From the Head of a Jester (1905) (No. 363), suggestive of the 
blue period figures, one can parallel his development as a painter, through the massive, primitive 
wood carvings of 1907, the Head of Fernande Olivier (1909) (No. 368), the cubist constructions of 
1913 and 1914, the surrealist bronzes and constructions of the late twenties, down to all the figure 
fantasies of today. His incredible ingenuity has produced innumerable masterpieces in sculpture; 
in many constructions he has explored problems of sculptural space; he has made many of the most 
brilliant uses of the found object to create works of the most delightful fantasy; yet continually one 
is brought back to the source of the sculpture in his painting or graphic work. (Nos. 363-371) 

Braque, Derain, Leger, de la Fresnaye, Bonnard, Vailotton and many other painters of our 
time have produced important sculptures. The contribution of the painter to modern sculpture is 
very great, in large part because he approaches sculptures from a fresh and non-sculptural — in the 
traditional sense — point of view. 


Malissc; 239. liiisl oj a 11 oiiiiin. Dclail. 



Matisse: 290. Slave. 

Matisse; II'JU. Hrlail. Iltnil of Slave. 


Matisse: 291. Detail, Head of Decorative Figure. 

^Iati^&^: 291. Dcroratiir Fii:nrt\ 


Matisse; 297. Two Negresses. Two Views. 

Malissf-: 300. I'viius in a Shell. Malissi': 296. Larpe Sraletl .\ii(le 



Matisse: 298. Reclining Nude. 

Matisse: 299. Reclining Nude No. 2. 

Modigliani: 307. Head. 



Picasso : 363. Head of a Jester. 

Picasso: 365. Head. 

Picasso : 368. Head of Fenwiule Olivier. ( Cubisi Head I . Detail. 



Picasso: 369. Head oj a Woman. 

Picasso: 370. I.itih- flul. 

Picasso: 371. faun. 

de la Fresnaye: 159. The Italian Girl. 

Hi;uiiii': l-i. Ilfsprris. ntriuu: Ul!. Ileail «i a Woman. 



Leger: 232. Head of a Woman. 

g^- "S 

n.innanl: .U. Girl Ralhins. \allolli.n: l.'l-'. li)»;ip (wW Pressing. 



During the first twenty years of the twentieth century manv sculptors were moving inevitably 
to certain basic conclusions on the nature of sculpture. There was first the fact that sculpture forms 
no longer need be expressed through the human figure; and second that sculpture no longer need 
be a three-dimensional mass existing in surrounding three-dimensional space. Brancusi, while 
maintaining the tradition of the solid surrounded by space, translated the figure into an abstract shape 
of an essential simplicity which stated the fact of existence and movement in space with ultimate 
clarity. Archipenko and Lipchitz began to construct from materials of wood and metal to reverse 
the traditional relation of solid and void. The futurist sculptor, Boccioni, dissected and interpene- 
trated the solids to unite them inextricably with the voids and to put them in movement in space. 
Picasso's 1913 relief constructions adapted for sculptural spatial experiment the still lifes of cubist 

In 1913 also, the Russian, Tatlin, created purely abstract reliefs which were arrangements 
of planes projecting into and enfolding voids. In 1915, Naum Gabo, then in Norway, began con- 
structing heads of sheets of wood, metal, or cardboard, in which the head became an arrangement of 
voids bounded by planes. The constructivist exhibition of 1920 and the Realist Manifesto issued by 
Gabo and his brother, Antoine Pevsner, drew the inevitable conclusion to which all these experiments 
had been leading. The Manifesto renounced volume and mass as primary sculptural elements and 
substituted depth as defined by planes or lines; it renounced the static rhythms of past sculpture 
and substituted 'kinetic rhythms as the basic forms of our perception of real time.' 

Gabo pursued these ideas in Germany in the twenties and after 1946, in the United States. 
Pevsner, who had been first a painter, settled in Paris and turned to constructivist sculpture. Each 
developed his own characteristic style, but both have continued to explore their stated principles. 
With these men was born a new concept, one of the most influential in the history of sculpture. 
(Nos. 161, 362) 


Cahu; 1()1. Lincni ( onstnntitm ,Vr». /. 



Bill: 33. Endless Loop I. 

Pevsner: 362. Constrinlivii in Spiral. 



m ill ? ' " '* 

"»~ \ T-5 

T t S^^ - ' 'il * 


Uhlmann: 431. Standard. Ihlcnfeld: 211. Composition in a Cube (above). Gargallo: 162. Pierrot. 


The constructivists and their followers developed the direction of geometric abstraction, 
frequently, as in the case of Gabo after 1920, using transparent plastic materials or string or wire 
constructions in order to destroy any sense of bulk and to make all forms and their relationships 
clearly apparent from any point. The search for a new definition of sculptural space was carried 
on in other ways by Julio Gonzalez, who as early as 1908 was working directiv in wrought iron, thus 
initiating the technique of direct metal sculpture which has transformed the nature of sculpture in 
our own time. In the twenties, Gonzalez began to produce wrought and cut iron sculptures, 
techniques which led to a great series of abstracted fantastic figures of open construction in which 
the beaten and twisted metal was expressed with a strong sense of the rough power of the 
material. (Nos. 187-192) 

In 1926 Jacques Lipchitz began to experiment with small open-work sculptures, modelled in 
wax and cast in bronze, but giving the effect of wire constructions. These also were important 
prototypes of the effects sought by many of the direct metal sculptors. In llic late lucnlies Lipchitz 
produced some of his major cubist sculptures. At the same time he was mo\ing auav Imni specific 
cubism and beginning to explore new subjects which demanded new sculptural means. The monu- 
mental Figure (1926-30) (No. 241) is a tremendous primitive totem of overpowering jirescncc. 
The /oy of Orpheus (1938) (No. 243) illustrates the new, free, baroque foiin.- ilr\(lu|iecl duiing the 
thirties, with rounded miIumics (i|icih'(I up in licillnws iind \oids. whirling ecstalicalK in space. 
Since I9,')() Liprbilz has found an i-nnrrnous repertoire of subjects in classic mxllis !>• \\liii h In- lias 
given new meanings for his own lime. Through many of them may be followed the theme of 
metamorphosis, the idea of constant change and transition from one element to another. Thus 
Europa in lur passionate endiraee of the bull is absorbed inlo ihe godhead. (No. 21 I i 



Gonzalez: 189. Montserrat Mask, Crying. 

Gon/.alt'/: IHH. Hnul of a Girl. ('.nn/alrz: 192. Abstract Figure, 



Lipchitz: 243. Joy of Orpheus. 

Lipchitz: 244. Rape oj Europa II. 

Li|ichilz: 241. Figure. 



Although Jean Arp was a founder of Dada, even his earliest collages and reliefs demonstrate 
an innate sensitivity to formal relationships which tended to override the sense of fantasy. When he 
began to do sculpture in the round at the end of the twenties, his seriousness of purpose as a 
sculptor became most apparent. Fantasy still persists down to the present day, frequently emerging 
in delightful elements of humor, but the serious and brilliant pursuit of the 'human concretion' is 
paramount. Arp belongs in the line of Brancusi. although the effects he seeks are entirely his own. 
Although, as he himself has said, all his sculptures are torsos, the torso is refined to a biomorphic 
shape, realized in space, solids and voids creating a sense of pulsating life which makes the figure 
move and change form before our eyes. This is a complete art of metamorphosis, of objects whose 
being is the act of becoming. (Nos. 9-16) 

The tradition in sculpture stemming from Brancusi, of extreme purity, has strong followers 
throughout the world. Chauvin. working largely in isolation, has sought a limited perfection. 
Gilioli uses a geometric rather than an organic base, breaking up the beautifuUv polished marble 
block in precise rectangles or triangles, or controlling slightly curving pyramidal forms with sharply 
delineated contours. Hajdu, in his marbles, creates precisely and elegantly outlined profiles of 
suggested figures or flowers. (Nos. 57, 180-182, 197-201) 


The element of fantasy, present in the works of Jean Arp. and in a highlv different manner 
in Gonzalez and in many works of Picasso and Lipchitz, has been a continuing and ever increasing 
force in modern sculpture. The Merzhau of Schwitters and the ready-mades of Duchamp inaugurated 
a tradition of 'found object' sculpture which has reached a fantastic climax in younger sculptors of 
today. Most of the surrealists have tried their hand at sculpture. Miro has produced sculptured 
figures (Personage, 1953) (No. 305) as well as ceramics with all the appealing madness of his 
paintings. Max Ernst has in recent years turned increasingly to sculpture. Works like Moon Mad 
(1944) (No. 150) ox Mother and Daughter (1959) (No. 151) present little Martian figures which can 
be menacing or funny and sometimes both. 


The great master of fantasy in modern sculpture is Giacometti. The early works are 
surrealist dream creations in a specific sense, with strange objects scattered about a large plane, to 
establish a mood of haunting mystery in which space or emptiness becomes a sensation of over- 
powering loneliness. It is this quality which he has continued to seek in the sculptures of the last 
twenty years. In these, enormously elongated figures stand or walk in isolation, lost in a great void 
of the spirit. These are not fantasies in the sense of the deliberate shock practiced by the surrealists. 
They are, rather, tragic expressions of mankind suffering, isolated, and unable to communicate. 
(Nos. 16.5-176) 

Germaine Richier created a world of monsters in bronze, whose pitted and broken surfaces 
take on the quality of lacerated and torn flesh, rotting and decomposing. These are yet very human 
and sympathetic monsters, capable of grief and suffering, and even at times of a clumsy, macabre 
humor. (Nos. 380-384) They are the ancestors of a whole generation of monsters who people the world 
of sculpture today. In France, the principal exponent of this tradition is Cesar, whose l\'ude 1 19.581 
(No. 52) is simply a pair of legs with lower torso, horribly and w-onderfully eroded and made more 
horrible by the curious sense of life which still remains. La Maison de Davolte { 1960 1 I No. 54 I . 
built up out of fragments of scrap iron, is a huge structure, suggestive of a figure torso or a flattened 
out head in which the primary expressive element is the fantastic texture of the entire surface. 
Here the decay of the materials conveys a larger message of decay in which there is still a kind of 
order and beauty. Cesar represents in a work like this the great international development of 
so-called 'junk sculpture,' sculpture assembled from any sort of found objects, old fragments of 
metal, the rubliish which slowly piles up at the edges of the modern industrial world. This rubbish 
is seen by these sculptors as part of the landscape of our society, a landscape of decay, destruction. 
and death, in which, nevertheless, there is a hope of revival, a new life, the creation of beauty from 
ugliness. Always present in this tradition is the idea of change, of metamorphosis as the controlling 
force of both the scul|)tiirc and ot lile itself. 

Cesar also experiments with a much more ordered and controlled scul|ilurc. Miirsrillcs 
( 196t)) {No. 53) is a great architectural, sculptural relief whoso surface is built up of a large number 
of small, regular, shifting and overlapping planes, gradually compressing into a closely textured, 
vibrating central area. 

French sculpture today continues to show variety and \ilalilv. Paris cotiIItiucs In dravi 
sculptors as well as painters froin all mi-v lUr \\nv\d. so every iiilcrniiliniKil riuMMil i^ rcprrM-nlcd. 
The Dane, Robert Jacobsen. nnu creates lioKI and rough geometric loii.-lrurlioii In uciiled metal 
{Muvemerit in Acceleration. 19571 (No. 213). The Swiss. Robert Miillcr. creates fanlaslic figure 
objects I roll! hammered sheets ol iron or slicl [lliltri spurn. I 9,58 1 I No. 3361. Ipousleguv presents 
primeval ritual figures in great, massive bronze casting in which llic o\er-all liiii>h i> ccnilrasled 
with roughly broken areas {DiniiL 19.591 I No. 2121. 



Arp: 13. Venus of Meuiion. Arp: 12. Griffon. 

Arp: 1 t. Unman Lunar Speilral. .\i|>: If). Tnrsn. h'riiit. 



Hajdii: 199. The Bird, TJraiuis II. 

Iluidu: l!00. Coriiinc. Ilajilii: 201. .S'l/ric. 



Chauvin: 57. If kite Peacock. 

Gilioli: 181. Paqvier. 




^^^^^ ^^B 

^^R ^^^^^^ 


Sijinnii: 11 1. 7'(ir,<(i I upiuT left* . ihl rrarlo: 120. /'iirri)». PonccI : 372. .(r/ira/i/ it'ornieclal^ I upper right i. 



Giaconietd: 166. Man. 

C'uu'diiirtti : Ui7. Ri'ilinin:: Woman. 



Giacometti : 175. Bust of Diego. 

Ciai-iinii-lli: ITO. W'alldns Ma 



Giacometii: 172. Dog 

Ciaromctti: 177. Monumcntai HeatL 



Richier: 380. Figure With Upraised Arm (Man of the Forest). Richier: 381. Leaf. 

Uicliicr: 381. Delail of Leaj. 




Ernst: 150. Moon Mad. 

ICnisI : Ifil, Molhii iiiul Ihiii^hlrr. 

Miilla: 301. Sciilpiiire. 



Miro: 305. Personage. Dubuffet: 130. Abundance. 

Ipouslejiuy : 212. Oiivid. Iliiiuily: 209. foiigasscrie II, 



Liegme: 2Zb. Personage (upper left ). Jacobsen; 213: Movement in Acceleration ( upper right ) . 

Miiller: 335. Rittersporn (lower left). Storel: 426. The Athlete (lower right). 

Cesar: 52. /V»(/c. 



Cesar: 53. Marseilles and Detail. 

Cesar: S-). I.i: Mai.son (/<• Ihiiot/f and Di-tail. 



Since the second World War, sculpture has received an enormous impetus not only in France 
and Germany but even more dramatically in Italy, England and the United States. The older artists 
in the new Italian sculpture had established reputations before the war. but in the last twenty years 
these reputations have become international. Manzii was influenced by Rosso but his real love is 
Donatello and the Italian Renaissance. The Dancer with Skirt (1956), Dancer (1954) and Girl in 
Chair (1955) (Nos. 261. 258, 259) are conipletelv traditional works which have, nevertheless, a light- 
ness and vitality which make them contemporary. The Girl in Chair (1955) particularly, with its 
introduction of the seemingly prosaic chair, illustrates the close study of nature in which the artist's 
works are rooted, and also the poetry which he is able to instill into the subject. The Cardinal series 
{Standing Cardinal, 1954) (No. 256) take a conventional subject and draw from it a mood of 
withdrawal and mystery, at the same time utilizing the heavy robes to create a simple and monu- 
mental sculptural volume. The sketches for the great series of religious reliefs for Salzburg 
Cathedral look back to Ghiberti as well as to Rosso in their free, impressionist handling, and to Delia 
Quercia in the classic modelling and order of the individual groups. Manzu as a sculptor is an 
anomaly — a Renaissance artist who has established his place in the contemporary world, a traditional 
sculptor who is never academic. 

It is perhaps one of the greatest strengths of modern sculpture as compared with modern 
painting, that even among experimental sculptors no one point of view is ever dominant to the 
exclusion of all others. The rise of abstract sculpture did not see an accompanying decline in 
figurative sculpture. Today throughout Europe and the United States may be found schools of 
realist, expressionist, abstract expressionist, abstract geometric, all flourishing and all contributing 
to the strength of the modern movement in sculpture. 

Marino Marini was also an established and mature artist before the war, already experi- 
menting with his favorite subjects including the horse and rider theme. His art is more violently 


expressionist than that of Manzii, both in the distortion of the forms and in textural elaboration of 
the surfaces. The Susannah ( 1943) (No. 278) illustrates the solidly obese figure that he has continued 
to favor, the primitive modelling of the features on the surface of the head, and the textured surface, 
with paint worked into the gouges to add color and textural variety. The figures of the fifties became 
niijre angular, sometimes elongated, the naive, primitive element more pronounced, and the color, 
worked in an arbitrary series of geometric areas, is frequently a dominant note. {Dancer, 19.54) 
(No. 282) 

Marini is a brilliant portraitist. His portrait heads are all characteristic Marini heads, 
surfaces grooved, slashed, torn, and vari-colored, forms distorted, features exaggerated; vet thev 
catch in an uncannv degree the expression and the personalitv of the sitter [Curt Valentin, 19531 
(No. 281). 

The horse and rider subject began to interest Marini in ihr late thirties and during the 
war it became for him a symbol for suffering and homeless humanity. The earlier versions of the 
forties are plump, sedate, and relatively relaxed, reminiscent of Chinese carvings of peasants on 
oxen. As he continues with the subject the action becomes more dramatic, the horse and rider more 
angular and attenuated. The horse, with elongated widely stretched legs and upthrust head, screams 
his agony. The rider with (Uillluriu stumps of arms falls back in a violent gesture of absolute despair. 
[Horse and Rider, 1950-53) (No. 279) 

Many of the younger Italian artists in reaction against the reputation aiul inlluence of 
Manzu and Marini, have turned awav from figuration and are working in various veins of free 
abstraction. Of these, one of the most impressive and original is Fietro Consagra. who creates in 
bronze and in wood, great plaques whose surfaces are penetrated and undercut to create a mosaic ol 
strange shapes and suggested figures who have their lib- in an ambiguous depth behind llie surlaee 
plane. (Nos. 58, 59) 



Manzu: 258. Dancer. 

Munzu: 259. Girl in Chair. 




Manzu; 261. Dancer With Skirt. 

Maii/.u: 256. Sldtidiriii ('.arilinal. 



Manzii: 268. St. Conrad of Parzham and St. Francis. 

Manzu: 273. St. Severin. 

Manzu: 253. Seli-Poriniil ll'iili Mnilr/ al Hi'raamn. 



Marini: 278. Susan?m. 

Mariiii: 281. Curl t'ali-nlin. 

Marini: 280. liiill. 



Marini: 282. Dancer. 

Mjiriiii: 27'). [forsr ntnl Rjilrr. 



Mastroianni; 286. Head (above). 

Cascclla : 51. Statue of Gandoglia Marble ( below ) . 

Minguzzi; 30-1. The SImdoiis. Clonsngra: 59. Public Colloquy. 



The postwar development of sculpture in England is even more phenomenal than that in 
Italy, since there had been produced in England very little sculpture of consequence between the 
Middle Ages and the twentieth century. The first, major modern British sculptor (if the brilliant 
but tragically short-lived Gaudier-Brzeska is excepted ) was Epstein, an American by birth, whose 
whole career was centered in England. In his stone carvings Epstein used a geometric simplification 
to emphasize the shape and the weight of the stone block in the creation of primitive images of brutal 
power. In his bronze figures and portraits the bronze reflects the highly fluid modeUing and texturing 
of the clav. The Visitation (1926) (No. 147) is one of his masterpieces of religious sculpture, a 
beautifully and sensitively modelled figure, filled with a spirit of profound pathos. The portrait of 
Joseph Conrad (1924-2.5) (No. 146) illustrates his qualities as a portraitist. The texture of a relief 
map, the heavily undercut brows, the hooded, piercing eyes, the energetic, inquiring pose, all combine 
to give a sense of living personality. 

Of present-day sculptors in England. Henry Moore is the dean and unquestionably the most 
fertile and creative mind. The early stone sculptures show influences from those of Epstein as well 
as from primitive African and pre-Columbian art. In the Mother and Child { 1931) (No. 309) he has 
developed the more rounded treatment of the stone which is identified with him. The figures are 
carved with simple monumentality, the material of alabaster is strongly expressed, and the distortion 
of the enveloping left arm together with the small, primitive, alert head of the mother, gives to the 
group a compact structure and a definite emotional impact. In the early thirties. Moore turned to 
abstract forms and by opening up the masses and creating dispersed groups he studied various kinds 
of space relationships. Here started his continuing fascination with a sculpture of tensions between 
space and solid, between positive and negative spaces. These experiments were soon translated back 
into figures in which he opened up great voids which became the material of the sculpture, rather 
than the stone or wood. {Family Group, 1945) (No. 313) 

The exploration of spatial problems led Moore in the forties and fifties to a greater use of 
bronze, in which material he could open up the figures to the point where the bronze was simply a 
frame, defining the forms of the voids. Interior-Exterior Reclining Figure (1951) (No. 315) is one 
of a series of intricate and subtle arrangements of solids and voids achieving a complete interpene- 
tration. During the war Moore had made thousands of drawings of the underground air raid shelters. 
These inspired some of his most tender family groups and some of his most classic, restrained and 
monumental draped figures {Draped Reclining Figure, 1952-53) (No. 319). The early fifties brought 
forth new experiments in attenuated, angular 'bone figures'. The King and Queen (1952-53) 


(No. 320) with their masks for faces, their flattened out, leaf-like figures, attain a sense of personality, 
of a regal dignity. The Falling Warrior (19.56-57) (No. 330) is a macabre and tragic symbol of a 
world bent on destroying itself. In the mid-fifties, as well, Moore produced a series of "L pright 
Motifs' of which the most notable is the Glenkiln Cross (1955-56) (No. 329), a gigantic and savage 
totem, which links the Christian symbol to the fertility columns of primitive mankind. 

Moore, working with a relatively limited number of subjects — reclining figure, mother and 
child, family group — has yet attained an enormous range of expression in his sculpture. He has 
explored the entire range of sculptural forms and materials, and has alwavs brought his explorations 
back to problems of humanity. 

Although certain of her forms may derive from those of Henry Moore ( her experiments 
with strings to balance and define the voids of certain sculptures of the fifties probably stem from 
similar experiments carried on by Moore in the forties) Barbara Hepworth reallv belongs to the 
tradition of Brancusi and Arp. Her search has been primarily for abstract, organic forms of the 
greatest purity which define basic spatial problems. Pendour (1947) (No. 205) attains great spatial 
variety within the simplicity of the total form, with white color being used to accentuate the voids. 
In some of her recent bronzes, such as Porthmeor (Sea Form) (1958) (No. 207) she begins to 
investigate freer shapes, more roughly textured, containing a suggestion of some living organism. 

Moore and Hepworth stand somewhat aside from the younger British sculptors of the 
postwar era. Reg Butler has developed an impressive and highly expressive figure style, which has 
more in common with Marini and the Italians than il lias with Moore. [Manipidalor, 195-1; Girl. 
1954-56) (Nos. 46, 47) Armitage, Meadows, Chadwick. Frink explore their separate and highly 
individual problems of expression in lironzes of violent action or macabre repose. Paolozzi is the 
principal British exponent of the 'junk sculpture' or 'found object' school. Out of all the detritus ol 
decayed machines he creates marvellous monsters of ferocious vilalitv, whose incredible agglomera- 
live surfaces, reflecting in bronze the thousands of nuts, bolts, wires, and other machine parts, take 
on the pathetic beautv of a dviiig rivilizalion [Large Frog. 1958) (No. 359). One of ihc niosl indi- 
vidual of the younger sculptors is William Turnbull. who creates out ol a \c\\ massive eleiucnls nl 
stone, wood, anil bronze, sculptures of an cIt-nicTital inonumcntaiity which lake one back In llic 
dolmens of Stonelicnge (Head. 1957: lldiiimi-iheail. l')(,(li (Nos. 129. 1.30). Thr >l\li> ..I ilicsc 
younger Brilish s(ul|il(jrs have chaMgcd radiiallv during llic lasl Icn years. In 1950. Bullcr. Chad- 
wick. I'aoliizzi and Turnluill were all uorking in a linear. n|irn l\|ii' ol' niclal s(ul|ilurc. using gener- 
ally alislracl shapes. 



Epstein : 146. Head of Joseph Conrad, Detail. 

I'"|i~li'iii: I 17. Till- I'isiiiiiiiiii. Di-kiil. 



Moore: 309. Mother and Child. 

Moore: 315. Interior-Exterior Reclining Figure. 

Mooi'i': 313. Fatiiily Croii/t. 

Moore: 335. Helmet Head No. 3. 



Moore: 320. King and Queen. 

Moore: 330. Falling « aninr. 



Moore: 319. Draped Reclining Figure. 


Moore: 329. Gteiikiln Cross. 



Moore: 331. Seated Woman. 

Trink: If.O. l-nllcn IlinI Man. 



Hepworth: 206. Head. 

lli|nvorili: :^07. Pnrlhnivor I Sea Form > I ulrnvr I. Ucpwiuili: 20."). Pcndour (below I. 



Butler: 47. Girl. 

Biillcr: '1(>. Mdnifnilafor. 



Armitage: 8. Seated Woman IFilh Square Head. 

Paolozzi: 359. Large Frog. 

Mriiiliiws: 303. Armed ISiisI laliovr i. (lliailwirk; S.S. Ritual Danriiii: i l»'lii« i. 


Turnbull; 430. Hammerhead. 

Turnlnill: IL"). Ilvud. 



Modern sculpture in the United States is so extensive and varied, and the Hirshhorn Collec- 
tion is so rich in exajnples that only the briefest outline of some of the chief tendencies and figures 
can be attempted in limited space. America has also had her sculptor-painters. Thomas Eakins 
created accomplished genre sculptures; Max Weber experimented successfully with cubist sculpture. 
Larry Rivers and Jasper Johns are now working in the field of sculpture. (Nos. 140-143, 433, 385, 

Until the second World War, sculpture in the United States was plentiful but largely tradi- 
tional. Of the pioneers. Nadelman of course was an international figure, trained in Europe. His 
sculptures alternate between the highly accomplished marbles and bronzes, combining an academic 
classicism with an art noiiveau elegance; and the painted wooden figures, delightful puppet-like 
commentaries on the urban life of the early century. (Nos. 337-343) 

Gaston Lachaise was also trained in Europe, although he came to America in 1906. His 
enormous, regal women, balanced on their slender legs and feet, seem at times to be almost carica- 
tures of their Maillol origins. These are amazing figures, combining grotesque obesity with an 
incredible elegance of movement. (Nos. 222-228) 

William Zorach is the dean of the traditionalists, an artist whose works have maintained 
qualities of simplicity and monunientality of the classic tradition. (Eve, 1951) (No. 444) In 
various modes, traditional figurative sculpture has been carried down to our own times by Maldarelli 
{Bianca No. 2, 1951) (No. 2.52), Jose de Creeft (Dancer, 1949-57) (No. 101), Chaim Gross (Per- 
formers (See Saw), 1944) (No. 194) and Saul Baizerman (Mother and Child, 1931-39) (No. 19). 
Baizerman's technique of hammering figures from sheets of copper created, in serenely classical 
figures of the Maillol tradition, studies of volumes without mass. The hammered-out voids of the 
reverse become abstract sculptures in which space is the medium. Most of the leading American 
sculptors of the earlier generation were carvers in stone or wood. Of these, John B. Flannagan was 
outstanding in his ability to express subject and material so that thev became inseparable. The 
Mother and Child (Not Yet) (1936) (No. 155) envelops the two heads and the mother's hand in a 
single, encompassing movement which gives all the essentials of the emotion expressed. The roughly 
textured surface of the grey fieldstone is not only stated as material, but serves to unify the figures 
into an entity. Flannagan's studies of little animals are sensitive translations into stone of an 
immediately caught and characteristic gesture or position. Flannagan. like Brancusi, was seeking 
essences. Without ever deserting representation, he sought continually for the simplest, most ele- 
mentary and yet basic statement of the subject. 

Reuben Nakian. who has developed into one of the most impressive and monumental of the 
direct metal sculptors, using geometric forms for expressive effect, was originally an outstanding 
figure sculptor (Ecstasy, 1947) (No. 344). A brilliant series of terra cotta incised reliefs translate 
his teacher, Lachaise, into high comedy (Nymph and Cupid) (No. 349). 

The major international figure among American living sculptors is Alexander Calder, whose 
reputation is as great in Europe as it is in the United States, and whose works are known and enthu- 
siastically collected all over the world. His wire circus figures and portraits of the twenties are 


delightful toys and are also iiiiportant in the development of new sculpture forms, since they 
literally are direct metal sculptures in which the metal wire is used to define the voids which are 
the primary forms. He is thus a pioneer in the concept of sculpture as space. With the invention 
of the abstract mobile in the early thirties, he incorporated actual rather than implied motion as a 
central element for sculpture. The earlier mobiles owed much of their inspiration to Mondrian in 
their classic purity. His long friendship with Miro and his own innate feeling for humor and fantasy 
soon led him to his characteristic free, organic shapes in terms of which he has made a thousand 
expressive variations, frequently continuing to combine them with geometric forms. He works 
now with an endless repertoire of organic and geometric shapes in the creation of mobiles and 
stabiles which are delicate, massive, humorous, menacing in turn, wires and flat shapes, black or 
brilliantly colored, encompassing space and shaping movement. (Nos. 48-50) 

In recent years motion has become a central interest of artists in Europe and America. 
Experiments in the use of mechanical means for creating effects of movement are carried on con- 
tinuously, as well as those wherein (as in Calder's mobiles) the delicate balance of the free elements 
causes them to move with the slightest breath of air. Jose de Rivera, in his beautifullv and meticu- 
louslv crafted constructions, uses movement as a frame rather than as a central part of the structure. 
His sculptures are thin sheets of steel or aluminum or iirilliantlv polished coils which encompass 
and shape space. As these slowly rotate on their bases, the effect is that of giving the spectator a 
gradual succession of completely integrated views. (Nos. 123-125) 

The tradition of Brancusi and Arp has today few major followers in the United States. 
Of these the most important is Isamu Noguchi, whose works in all media — stone, metal, wood, 
clay — embody many different approaches, but maintain the consistent classic clarity of Brancusi 
combined with shapes of the Japanese ceramic tradition. (Nos. 354, 355) Of the younger sculptors. 
Rosati has until recently created in marble and bronze delicate and elegant figures which are personal 
variants of the tradition of Arp. He is now working in a still highly sini|ilifir(l luil more massive 
idiom reminiscent of Freundlich and Wotruba. (Nos. 400-402) 

The greatest single development in American sculpture during the last twenty years has 
been in the direclion of direct metal scul|)ture. forced anil \\('lded: aiifl latch in the cast bronze 
sculpture which incorporates ideas and elements frnin the constructivist tradition. The artists of this 
direction are many and varied in their approaches. Cenerallv their sculpture is non-representational, 
hut with strong suggestions of figures and subjects presented in specificalK and forccfnllv exprcssi\c 
maimer. Roszak. first a painter, became a geometric coiislructivisl in ihr ihirlies. then in the 
forties de\clii|i(M| hi^ free fiirni conslruclions of stci'l. Iiiazcd with binnzc. brass, or nickel. These 
are romantic statements, rooted frc(|ucnll\ in lilcralnrc. pii\\crfnl in -hniliirc yet elegant in llu'ir 
incrediblv varied Icvlural snrfaics. (No.-. III). Mil 

I )a\ id Sin i ill. \\ ho ihjw \\ ovks priiicipalK in .-li-i-l. iiKiinlaiiis a stronglv archili'i'lnral >li miuic 
in IkiIIi his iiiiirc Licoinclric works ami in llic liiiT sciilplnn'S thai arc roolcd in a scn-r nl living 
forms in landscape. (Nos. 416-121) l.iplnn. using haiiiniercd -heels of mdal brazed with 
nickel and siUcr. creates organic forms iIkiI uiiIoM like llnucrs or lake on llii' strange slia|ics ol 


iiivtliical beasts. (Nos. 246, 247) The problem of space has increasingly occupied Ferber, 
first in his cage and roofed structures and most recently in his great environmental sculptures into 
which the spectator can walk. (No. 15.'3) Recently, sculptors of the direct metal school have been 
turning to bronze casting in "lost wax," frequently using techniques and forms of constructivism. 
Philip Pavia builds up his figures in wax on armatures of wood and cardboard which play an im- 
portant part in the effect of the final bronze. (No. 360) David Slivka molds sheets of wax into 
undulating forms which present the thesis of sculpture as volume and space both abstractly and 
traditionally. (No. 415) 

In America as in Europe, direct metal sculpture has now led to a wild outburst of 'found 
object' or 'junk' sculpture. The industrial society of the United States with its fantastic graveyards 
of wrecked automobiles or decaying machinery, lends itself to the symbolic interpretation inherent in 
the works of this school. Among them, Stankiewicz creates articulated figures in which the function 
of the original machine becomes integrated into the decrepit man-machine it has become. (No. 425) 
Julius Schmidt transforms machine parts into classical, balanced architectural bronzes in which the 
rust of the original takes on a new textural beauty. (No. 412) 

The figurative school of sculpture has continued and increased in strength in recent years. 
Baskin, looking back to Barlach. creates obese little figures that are both defiant and pathetic, as 
well as owls that easily dominate the human figures. (Nos. 27-32) Glasco strangely suggests both Arp 
and Lachaise in inflated, highly polished bronze figures whose compressed features or pygmy heads 
foretell the death of the intellect. (Nos. 183-186) William King carries on the tradition of Nadelman 
in carved and bronze mannikins which are delightful satires on contemporary life and classic tradi- 
tions. (Nos. 215, 216) The list of accomplished figure sculptors among the younger generation is 
long and growing. Their approach is dominantly satirical or bitterly critical of the world in which 
they live. Harold Tovish, in beautifully finished bronze, gives us a world of death's heads, torture 
victims, and the lost and isolated spectators who are mankind. (Nos. 427, 428) 

The possibilities of wood as a sculptural material are being re-explored, not only by the 
figurative sculptors but also by carvers and constructivists working more abstractly. Raoul Hague 
for many years has shaped tree trunks into powerful semi-abstract forms which combine the living 
movement of the tree with sculptural structure of masses in space. (No. 196) Gabriel Kohn has 
developed geometric constructions of heavy wood strips glued together and shaped with the pre- 
cision of machines. (No. 217) Louise Nevelson, using fragments of furniture, boxes, and balustrades, 
painted uniformly black or white or gold, has created great wall structures of overwhelming threaten- 
ing power. 

There are in the United States, as in any country, sculptors who defy classification. Joseph 
Cornell is unique unto himself, combining in his wonderful little boxes, elements of surrealism with 
American troinpe I'oeil, to create an image at the same time naive and sophisticated. (Nos. 60-62) 

These few comments have only touched on a number of the directions and interests of con- 
temporary American sculpture in terms of a few of the leading or typical sculptors. Most of those 
represented in the exhibition and illustrated in this book could not even be mentioned, as the 
result of limitations of space. There are obviously a number of important sculptors not yet repre- 
sented in the collection. The illustrations will indicate, however, the range and the vitality of 
American sculpture today. It only remains to say that we are living in the most vital and varied 
period in the history of American sculpture, the period in which this art has come of age, and the 
United States has taken her position as an international force. 


Eukins: 1)0. Kniltins. 

Eakins: \]'2. Arcadia. 




Nadelman: 343. Head of Baudelaire. 

Naili'Iiiian: 3,13. Horse. 

Nail.lman: 310, Thr llosh-ss. Detail 



Lachaise : 224. Walking Woman. 

Lachaise: 225. Egyptian Head. 

Lucliaisf: 227. U uiiiaii on a Conch. 



Baizerman: 20. My Mother. 

Maldarelli: 252. Bianca No. 2. 

Baizcrnian: 19. Mother and Child. 



Zorach: 444. Eve. 

Zorach: 443. Setting Hen. 

Flannii^'un: l.iS. Molhrr ami (.hilil lAiif Ic/i. Klannapan: ISfi. Triumph ol the Enp 



Robus: 386. Song. de Creeft: 101. Dancer. 

Gross: ]9\. ['rrjonniT.s [See SawK 


.-j^^pSM&^^^gy x ow^ij^^.jj 'n^-^^- : 


Nakian: 347. Nymph and Cupid. 

Nakian: 344. Ecstasy. 

Ki'fli r: .171, Head nf Cnnil Snmaritnn. Wi-ber: 433. Spiral Rhylhm. 



Calder: 50. Stabile (Le Petit Nez). 


Cald.T: 18. Mobile 



de Rivera: 124. Construction No. 35. 

F!ii)iniu]i: 1M-. Conalriirliiin No. I (iiliovc). 

di' Ki\(ia: 123. <:<mslnirlinn. Rid anil lllack I liilinv I. 



Noguchi: 355. Lekythos. Noguchi: 354. Iron Wash. 

Rosati: 101. llamndryud. 




Smith: 420. Sentinel U. 

Sniilli: •12'1'. liallon l.aniliiig. 

Sniilli: tlT. Sled Draiiiiis 



Roszak: 410. Invocation I. 

Ft'ibfr; l'i3. Personage No. I. 






^m mt; 






Lipton: 247. Mandrake. 


ncliiii-r: 11"). Jtiroh's l.nihlfr. Cripiir: 1'13. Four )tnsirianx. 



Hare: 202. Fruit Tree. 

Andrews: 2. S/ri Qiiren. Iliinl; 210. I.inlr t'crtnr. 



Pavia: 360. Horsetail. Schmidt: 412. Untitled. 

MKka: 115. Mfihl I aliovc I . 

Apn^tini: ].S(jrnren /J?/i. ■/./). llu-lowl. 


..■ V- -'^ -Jti*"^ 


Stankiewicz: 425. Figure. 

Cluunhcrlain : S6. I'ntitled. 



Hadzi: 195. Helmet. V {Elmo). Higgins: 208. Dunce. 

Sfley : 113. luirnialily i abin c Icfl ) . 

Oclalc: 356. Tokobushira (above right). 

Maiisol: 28.5. i milled (below). 



Baskin: 31. Owl. 

T<)vi's!i: l^f!. llffiil in Sparc. 

Glasco: 181. Rcr/inin:: Itomaii. 



King: 216. Venus. Weinberg: 434. The Bride. 

Darriiui: 63. Litiii:hing Hahc. 

Zirglcr: Mi. liecliiiiiig Girl. 




Zajac: 441. Easier Goat With Two Stakes. 



Olivoirii: ^^^7. It nnidii Stiiiulin,^ in Oiu-ii l!ii\. HImis: '.Wr,. llrmL 




Hague: 196. LamontviUe Elm. 

Nii'VvUon: S?t2. Monti (a in Woman fuliovt-K 

Kohn: 1^17. yantiirket i brio 



Cornell: 60. Suite de la Longitude. 

Joliii^: I'll, rin^ 

Nivola: 353. The Mother. 



■•KTEit A«><»STI.'\'I 


Born in New York City, 1913. Studied at Leonardo da Vinci Art 
School, New York. Numerous group exhibitions primarily in 
United States, including: Aspects de la sculpture americaine, 
Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris, 1960; New Sculpture Group, 
Stable Gallery, New York, 1960; sculpture show, Dwan Gallery, 
Los Angeles, 1961. One-man shows: Galerie Grimaud, New York, 
19.59; Stephen Radich Gallery, New York, 1960, 1962. Member, 
Faculty of Painting and Sculpture, Columbia University, 1961-62. 
Lives in New York City. 

1. SARACEN 121.5 A. D. 1960. Bronze, II. 29%". 


Page 191 

Born in Berkeley, California. 1925. .Sludii'd at University of 
Southern California, Los Angeles; Stanford University. 1948 
began to study sculpture; visited Europe. First one-man exhibi- 
tion, Santa Barbara Museum of Art, 1950. Exhibits in New York 
at Alan Gallery, most recently in 1961. f_.ivcs in .Santa .Monica, 

2. SKY QUEEN. 1960. Steel, H. 20". Page 189 


Born in Kiev, 1887. 1902-05 studied at Kiev Art School. To Mos- 
cow, where he studied and exhibited, 1906. 1908 to Paris; at- 
tended ficole des Beaux-Art.s. Founded his sculpture school. 
Paris, 1910. Associated with cubists and participated in their 
exhibitions, including 5e<7/o« tVOr, 1912. Represented in .\rmory 
Show, New York, 191.3. Joined Der Sturm, Berlin, 1913. 1921-23, 
Berlin. ScIiIimI in United States, 1923. Has exhibited and taught 
extensively here at various schools including New Bauhaus, 
Chicago and his own school. New York. Most recent one-man 
exhibilion in New York, Perls Galleries. 1962. Lives in New 
York City. 

3. SEATED FEMALE NUDE. 1909. Bronze, M. 1.5". Page 61 
Signed sifle of base, Archipenko 1909. 

Foundry n)ark rear edge of base, Heinz Barth. 

4. FEMALE TORSO. ,-. IW). Alaluisier, II. 18-''i". Page 61 

Si;ineil iin li;uk i>l base. Anhipvnho. 

.5. POIMHAIT IlKAD.c. 1921. NUnbl.-. II. KiVi". 

Born in Leeds, England, 1916. Studied at Leeds College of Art, 
1934-37; Slade School of Art, London, 1937-39. Taught at Bath 
Academy of Art, Corsham. First exhibition. Institute of Con- 
temporary Arts, London, 1946. Other exhibitions include: first 
one-man show, Gimpel Fils, London, 1952; Venice Biennale, 
1952; The Netv Decade, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1955; Brussels World's Fair. 1958; //. Documenta. Kassel, 19.59. 
Lives in Corsham. England. 

6. .STANDING FIGURE. 1953. Bronze, H. 43%". 
Initialled KA rear of base. 

Foundry mark NOACK, Berlin rim of base. 

7. SEATED FIGURE. 1954. Bronze, H. IIW. 

Bronze. H. 14'/-". 


Born in Strasbourg, 1887. 1905-07 studied at Weimar .\cadeniy; 
1908 at Acadeinie Julian, Paris. 1909-11. Weggis. Switzerland, 
founded Moderner Bund. To Munich. 1911 ; joined Hlaue Reiler. 
Met Kandinsky and Delaunay. To Berlin, 1913; member of Der 
Sturm. Association with Picasso, Max Jacob. Apollinaire. .\ 
founder of Dada movement with Hugo Ball and Tristan Tzara, 
Ziirich, 1916; with Max Ernst. Cologne, 1919. 1922-26 lived main- 
ly in Paris, where he joined surrealist movement. Active as 
painter, j)oet, graphic artist as well as sculptor. Contributor to 
man>' periodicals: among numerous publications are Les Ismes 
de I'Ar/. with I.issilzky. 1925; Dream.'i and Projects. 1952; 
sculpture for University of Caracas, 1953; relief for UNESCO 
Building, Paris, 1957. Recent major exhibitions include retro- 
spective. The Museum of Modern .\rt. New York, 1958; //. Docu- 
menta. Kassel, 1959. Lives in Meudon, near Paris. 

9. SNAKEBREAD. 1942. Bl.ick granite, 6'o X 10' 1 n6',". 

10. HI ST OF AN ELF. 1949. Polished bronze. H. 12". 

11. IIKAD ON CLAWS. 1949. Poli-be,! bronze. II. 18'.j". 

12. GRIFFON. ,-. 1950. Polished bronze. H. 22'i". Page 104 
1.3. VFM S(l|- Mil IKIN. |il.-,(.. Polished bronze. II. 19',".|'ap,. 104 

14. Ill .MAN 1. 1 .N.\i;SI'i;( TKAl.. 
Bronze. H. 45". 

Page 105 


15. SILL CONFIGURATION. 1960. Polished bronze, H. 13%". 

16. TORSO OF FRUIT. 1960. Marble, H. 30". Page 105 


Born in Vitebsk, Russia, 1889. Studied at Imperial Art School, 
Odessa, 1904. To United States, 1910. Studied at National Acad- 
emy of Design, New York; Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, New 
York, 1911-20. Exhibited in London, 1924; first exhibition in 
United States, New York, 1933. Died in New York City, 1957. 

17. CEMENT MAN. 1920-57. Bronze, H. 5%". 

18. RABBI. 1920-57. Bronze, H. 5%". Signed on back, S. Baizerman. 

19. MOTHER AND CHILD. 1931-39. Page 169 
Hammered copper, H. 31". .Signed on side. S. Baizerniiin. 

20. MY MOTHER. 1940-49. Copper, H. 13". 
Signed below left ear, 5. Baizerman 49. 

21. NEREID. 1955-57. Hammered copper, H. 47%' 

Page 168 


Born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1922. Studied at New York 
University, 1939-41; Yale University School of Fine Arts, 1941- 
43; New School for Social Research, New York, 1949; Academie 
de la Grande Chaumiere, Paris, 1950; Accademia di Belle Arti, 
Florence, 1951. First one-man show, New York, 1939. Recent 
exhibitions include: Pittsburgh International, 1958, 1961; Sao 
Paulo Bienal, 1961 ; Art Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 1962. 
Grants include Guggenheim Fellowship, 1953; National Insti- 
tute for Arts and Letters Grant, 1961. Lives in Northampton, 

Bronze, H. 21%". 

28. PORTRAIT OF ESTHER. 1956. Bronze, H. 8V/'. 

29. THE GUARDIAN. 1956. Limestone, H. 27". 

30. THE CROW. ( plaque ) 19.59. Bronze, 11% x llVj", edition of 8. 
Monogrammed bottom right. 

31. OWL. 1960. Bronze, H. 20iL'", edition of 6. 

Page 196 

32. STUDY FOR BARLACH. 1960. Bronze, H. 6'/^", edition of 6. 
Monogrammed back of neck. 


Born in Wedel, Germany, 1870. 1888-91 attended School of Ap- 
plied Arts, Hamburg; 1891-95 studied sculpture at Dresden 
Academy, Paris, 1895-96, when he briefly attended Academie 
Julian. Traveled to Russia, 1906: to Florence, 1909. 1910 settled 
in Giistrow, Germany. Active as a graphic artist as well as 
sculptor; wrote many plays which he illustrated. Among his 
plays are Der arme Vetter, 1910; Der Findling, 1920; Der blaue 
Bolt, 1923. Executed sculpture commissions for churches and 
memorials in Germany, including Giistrower Cathedral, 1927; 
Magdeburg Cathedral. 1929. Work declared '^degenerate" by 
Hitler regime, 1937; some sculpture subsequently destroyed by 
Nazis. Died in Rostock, 1938. 

22. RUSSIAN BEGGAR WOMAN. 1907. Bronze, H. 9". Page 49 
Signed on back. E. Barlach. 

23. THE AVENGER. 1923. Bronze. L. 23%". 
Signed on left side base, E. Barlach. 

Foundry mark NOACK, Berlin on left rim of base. 

24. TWO MONKS READING, (small version) 1923. 
Bronze, H. 5%". Signed on left side, E. Barlach. 
Foundry mark right rear, NOACK, Berlin. 

25. TWO MONKS READING. 1932. Bronze, H. 23". Page 48 
Signed on bottom right side, E. Barlach 1932. 

Foundry mark under signature. NOACK, Berlin. 

26. LAUGHING WOMAN. 1937. Bronze, H. BVs". 


Born in Winterthur, Switzerland. 1908. Studied at Kunstgewer- 
beschule, Ziirich; Bauhaus, Dessau. Has practiced architecture 
since 1930. Taught at Kunstgewerbeschule, Ziirich; Institute of 
Technology, Darmstadt. Writings include: Le Cor busier and 
Pierre Jeanneret, 1934-38, 1938; Modern Swiss Architecture, 
1925-45, 1950. Among recent exhibitions: Sao Paulo Bienal, 
1953 ; Brussels World's Fair, 1958 ; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959. 
Lives in Ziirich. 

33. ENDLESS LOOP I. 1947-49. Page 94 

Gilded copper on crystalline base, 9'!4 x 28 x 8". 


Born in Fontenay-aux-Roses, near Paris, 1867. Studied law ; 
1888-89 attended ficole des Beaux-Arts and Academic Julian, 
Paris. Met Denis. Vuillard, Serusier. Joined Nabi group. First 
group exhibitions at Independants and Le Bare de Boutteville's, 
Paris, 1891. 1893 met VoUard who showed and published his 
book illustrations. First one-man show at Durand-Ruel's, Paris, 
1896. Subsequently exhibited extensively throughout Europe and 
United States. 1926 visited United States as member of Pitts- 
burgh International jury. Died at Le Cannet, 1947. 

34. GIRL BATHING, c. 1923. Bronze, H. 10%". 

Page 91 



Born in Montauban, France, 1861. Studied at ficole des Beaux- 
Arts, Toulouse. To Paris, 1885, attended ficole des Beaux-Arts 
where he studied with Falguiere and Dalou, a pupil of Carpeaux. 
Entered Rodin's studio, worked there for many years as chief 
assistant. First exhibition, Galerie Hebrand, Paris, 1905. From 
1909 taught in his studio. La Grande Chaumiere. Public monu- 
ments include: Monument for the Dead of 1870, Montauban, 
1902; bas reliefs for Theatre des Champs-filysees, Paris, 1912; 
Mickiewicz Monument, Paris. Died in Vesinet, near Paris, 1929. 

35. LA MARQUISE. 1886. Bronze, H. 15%". Page 32 

36. HEAD OF APOLLO. 1900. Bronze, H. 16' ■;". Page 34 

37. WARRIOR. 1900 ( Monument de Montauban I . Page 33 
Bronze, H. TO-Jio". Monogrammed bottom left thigh. 

Foundry mark, Susse fondeur, Paris, no. 3. 


Bronze, H. 34%". 

one-man show, Galerie Kahnweiler, Paris, 1908. First sculpture 
in plaster, 1920. Executed sets for Diaghilev Ballet: Les Fdcheux, 
1923; Zephyr e el Flore, 1925. First of numerous major retrospec- 
tives, Kunsthalle, Basel, 1933. Participated in Pittsburgh Inter- 
national, 1937 (first prize), 1939, 1958; Venice Biennale, 194S 
(first prize 1, 1950, 1954, 1958, 1960. Lives in Paris. 

42. HESPERIS. 1939. Bronze, H. 15%". Page 89 
Signed on front, G. Braque. 

Foundry mark, Susse Fondeur Paris 1/6. 
Executed in 1939, cast in 1956. 

43. LITTLE HORSE. 1955. Bronze, H. iV-i". 
Signed, bottom rear left leg, G. B. 

Foundry mark, bottom rear right leg, Susse Fondeur Paris 2/6. 

44. LITTLE HORSE, GELINOTTE. 19.55. Bronze, H. 7>V'. 
Signed, left rear leg, G. Braque. Foundn mark, right rear leg, 1/6 
and right foreleg, Susse Fondeur Paris. 

nea nt'Ti.Eii 


Born in Pestisani Gorj, near Tarju-,)ui, southern Rumania, 1876. 
Apprenticed to a carpenter; studied at Craiova, 1894-98; Bucha- 
rest Academy of Fine Arts, 1898-1902. 1902-04 to Paris, through 
Germany and Switzerland. Settled in Paris; studied at ficole des 
Beaux-Arts under Mercier. Refused invitation to work in Rodin's 
studio. From 1909 friendship with Modigliani. Represented in 
Armory Show, New York, 1913. .Showed regularly at Salon des 
Independants, Paris, until 1920. 1921 met American collector 
John Quinn who purchased many of his works. Visited New 
York, 1926, 1934, 1939; India, 1937. Designed Temple of De- 
liverance for Maharajah of Indore I never executed). Retrospec- 
tive The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, 1955 
(his first comprehensive museum exhibition t. Died in Paris, 1957, 

Born in Bunlingford, England. 1917. Practiced architecture, 
1937-50, when he gave up his practice to devote himself entirely 
to sculpture. First exhibition, Hanover Gallery, London, 1949. 
Received Gregory Fellowship, Leeds University, 1950-53; Arts 
Council Commission for Festival of Britain. 1951 ; Grand Prize, 
Unknown Political Prisoner Competition, 1953. Recent exhibi- 
tions: //. Documenla. Kassel. 1959; Pittsburgh International, 
1955, 1961. Lives in Berkhamstead. England. 

45. FAMILY GROUP. I9-«i. Iron. H. 36". unique. 

46. MANIPULATOR. 1954. Bronze, H. 65'-". 

47. GIRL. 1954-56. Bronze, H. 7'6". 
Initialled, edge of base, RB 5/8. 
Foundrv- mark, Susse Fondeur Paris. 

Page 155 
Page 154 

.39. 1909-11. Marble, II. 11 i-j". Page ,54 

Signed bottom, Brancusi. 

40. PROMETHEUS, c. 1911. Polished bronze, II. 7". Page .54 

41. TORSO OK A YOUNf; MAN. 1924. Page 55 
I'olished brass. II. 18". ( With original wood base, II. 581';;"). 
Signed, C liranrnsi Paris 1924. 


Born in Argentcuil, France, 1882. 1893-99 l.e Havre. Tn Paris, 
1900. 1TO2.04 studied at Academic Humbert. Paris. Exhibited 
with Kuuvcs at .Salon des Independanls, 1906. From 1907 close 
association with Picasso, with whom he developed cubism. First 


Born in IMiiladelphia. 1898. Studied engineering. Stevens Insti- 
tute of Technology. Philadelphia. 1915-19, 192;l-26 studied at 
Art Students League, New York. To Paris. 1926, where he de- 
veloped his miniature circus. 1928 one-man exhibition of wire 
sculpture. New York. 19.30 met Lcger and .Mondrian in Paris: 
joined .(hslraclion-Crcalion group. 19.32 first exhibited mobile 
sculpture in Paris. Galerie \ ipnon. Since 1933 has lived in Rox- 
bury, Connecticut, making freciuent trips to Paris. Settings for 
Salie's Sornite. 19.36. Illustrated The Fables of .tesop. 1931; 
Three \ oung Rats. 1941, among others. Commissioned to design 
mobile for Terrace Plaza Hotel, Cincinnati. 1946. Among recent 
exhibitions: Brussels World's Fair, 1958: //. Doaimenta, Kassel, 


48. MOBILE. 1957. Painled metal, H. 40" 

49. MOBILE. 1958. Painted metal, H. 30" 

Black metal. H. 66%". 

Page 177 

Page 176 

York, 1959; Aspects de la sculpture americaine, Galerie Claude 
Bernard, Paris, 1960; Sao Paulo Bienal, 1961. Lives in New 
York City. 

56. UNTITLED. I960. Welded metal, II. 20". unique. 

Page 193 

AlVnnEA f'AS«'EM..A 

Born in Pescara, Italy, 1919. Studied with his father and Do- 
menico Rampelli. Executed ceramic architectural decoration in 
Rome. First exhibition, (-alleria Obelisco, Rome. 1949. Several 
one-man exhibitions since then, primarily in Italy. Worked with 
architect Gardella on faijade of Olivetti building, Diisseldorf. 

Marble, 9 x 15Mi x 6%", unique. 

Page 138 


Born in Rochefort-sur-Mer, France, 1889. Studied with Joseph 
Bernard, Paris, until 1914. Exhibits only occasionally, in group 
shows. Comprehensive exhibition, Galerie Maeght, Paris, 1949. 
Lives in France. 

57. WHITE PEACOCK. 1946. Stone. H. 101,4". 
Signed, rear base, Chauvin. 

Page 108 

CESAR (Cesar Baldaccini) 

Born in Marseilles, 1921. Studied at ficole des Beaux-Arts, 
Marseilles and Paris. First one-man exhibition, Paris, 1955. Re- 
cent shows include: Venice Biennale, 1956; Sao Paulo Bienal, 
1957; Pittsburgh International, 19.58 (third prize), 1961; The 
Art of Assemblage, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1961; Art Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 1962. Lives in Paris. 

52. NUDE. 1958. Bronze, H. 26%". Page 123 

53. MARSEILLES. 1960. Iron. H. 96". Page 124 

54. LA MAISON DE DAVOTTE. 1960. Iron, H. 6', unique. Page 125 


Born in Mazara del Vallo, Sicily, 1920. Studied at Accademia di 
Belle Arti, Palermo, 1938-44. To Rome, 1944. 1947, first one-man 
show, Galleria Mola, Rome ; founding member of group Forma. 
Exhibitions include Venice Biennale, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1956 
(special room, Einaudi Prize) ; 1960 (special room. Grand Prize 
for Sculpture) ; Pittsburgh International. 1958 (Honorable Men- 
tion). Wrote: La Necessitu delta Scultura. 1952; L'Agguato C'e, 
1961. Lives in Rome. 

,58. LITTLE COLLOQUY. 1956. Bronze, H. 29ys", unique. 
Signed, bottom of base, Cortsagra 56. 

59. PUBLIC COLLOQUY. 1956. Wood, H. 78%". 
Signed, bottom of base, Consagra 56. 

Page 139 


Born in London, 1914. Studied architecture. Began sculpture, 
1945. First one-man exhibition, Gimpel Fils, London, 1950. Re- 
cent exhibitions include: Venice Biennale, 1952, 1956 (Inter- 
national Sculpture Prize); .Sao Paulo Bienal, 1957; Brussels 
World's Fair, 1958; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959; M. Knoedlei 
and Co., New York, 1961. Lives in Cotswolds, England. 

55. RITUAL DANCING. 1955. Iron and concrete. H. 47%". 


Born in Rochester, Indiana, 1927. Studied at Art Institute of 
Chicago Professional School, 1950-52; Black Mountain College, 
Black Mountain, North Carolina, 1955-56. First one-man exhibi- 
tion, Wells Street Gallery, Chicago, 1957. Group shows include: 
Recent Sculpture, U.S.A., The Museum of Modern Art, New 


Born in Nyack, New York. 1903. First one-man show, Julian 
Levy Gallery, New York, 1932. Group exhibitions include: Pitts- 
burgh International. 1958; The Art oj Assemblage, The Museum 
of Modern Art, New York, 1961 ; Art Since 1950, Seattle World's 
Fair, 1962. Awarded Ada S. Garrett Prize, Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1959. Lives in New^ York City. 

60. SUITE DE LA LONGITUDE, c. 1957. Pa| 

Box construction, 13% x 19%", unique. 
Signed on back, Joseph Cornell. 

61. LUNAR LEVEL NO. 1. Box construction, 9 x 12", unique. 
.Signed on back. Joseph Cornell. 

62. SAND FOUNTAIN. Box construction, 10% x 8", unique. 
Signed on back, Joseph Cornell. 




Born in New York, 1929. Studied at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 
1947-48; Brooklyn College, 1948-51; Academic des Beaux-Arts, 
Paris, 1949; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, (M.F.A.), 
1951-53. In Florence, 1955-57 on Fulbright Fellowship. Exhibi- 
tions include two-man show. Fine Art.s Center, Colorado .Springs, 
1957; Washington Irving Gallery, New York, 1959. Lives in 
Colorado Springs. 

63. LAUGHING BABE. 1956. Bronze, M. 8", unique. 
Signed, rear, Darriau 56. 

Page 199 

64. BANDAGED HERO NO. 1. 1957. Bronze, H. 9V/,", unique. 

iio;voiiE i»Ar>iii-:ii 

Born in Marseilles, 1810. 1816 to Paris. Studied at Academie 
Suisse around 1823. 1825-30 worked as assistant to a lithographer. 
1830-32 first caricatures, lithographs and sculpture. 1831 be- 
came a contributor to Caricature, a Parisian journal opposed to 
the Third Empire. Friendship with Balzac. Baudelaire; asso- 
ciation with painters of the Barbizon school. 1878 exhibition at 
Durand-Ruel's, organized by Victor Hugo. Died in Valmondois, 

65. LE NIAIS. c. 1830-32. Bronze, H. 5". Foundry mark, MLG 6/30. 


c. 1830-32. Bronze, H. 5W. Foundry mark. MLG 12/25. Page 39 

67. LE SUBTIL (LECOMBE ) . c. 1830-32. Bronze, H. 6' !•". 
Foundry mark, MLG 12/25. 

Bronze, 11. 6%". Foundry mark, MLG 21/25. 

69. LE MfiPRISANT tODIERl. c. 18.30-32. Bronze, H. SV/'. 
Foundry mark, MLG 21/30. 

70. L'lRONlSTE ICALLOIS Vl.c. 1830-32. Bronze, H. 8«:j". 
Foundry mark, M L(; 21/25. 

71. L'lNFATUfi DK SOI i HAIl.l.lOT ). c. 1830-.32. lirnnze, II. 6%". 
Foundry mark. /!//,(; 2;/.iO. 

72. LE VANITEUX (CH. fiTIENNE l . e. 18.30.32. Bronze. II. 6%". 
Foundry mark, MLG 21/25. 

73. 1.K(;R0S, GRASET...SAT1SFA1T (DUBOIS). c 18;!0-,32. 
Bronze, I \..1^>>,". Foundry mark. MLG 21/25. 

74. LE MOOUEl R (DELORTl. c. 1830-32. Bronze. II. 9". 
Foundry mark, MLG 21/25. 

75. SPIRITUEI. KT MAI, IN ( l)-AIU;OliTi. e. 18.30-32. 
Bronze. II. 5 1...". Foundry mark, MLG 21/30. 





LE GOURMET (PATAILLEi. c. 1830-32. Bronze, H. 6%". 
Foundry mark, MLG 21/2.5. 

LE VIEUX FINAUD (ROYER-COLLARD). c. 1830-32. Page 37 
Bronze, H. 5Vi". Foundry mark, MLG 21/25. 

Bronze. H. 6%". Cast in 1925, 25/25. 

L'ORATEUR ( DUPIN l . c. 1830-32. Bronze, H. 5%". 
Cast in 1925, 11/25. 

L'ENTETE ( VATOUT) . 1830-32. Bronze, H. 7%". 
Cast in 1925, 21/25. 

Bronze, H. 7%". Cast in 1925, 11/25. 

LE RATAPOIL. c. 1850. Bronze, H. 17". 

Signed top of base. Daumier. 

Foundry mark, rim of base, .4lexis Rudie 

Page 38 




Initialed on side, HD. Foundry mark, rear, Vahuani 16/30. 

LE BON VIVANT. Bronze, H. 6%". 

Initialed on rear, HD. Foundry mark, right rear, I'ahiiani 16/30. 

LTNDfiCIS ( CH. DE LAMETH ) . Bronze, H. 5?4". 29/30. 

LEHARGNEUX (SOULT I. Bronze, H. 6". 1.5/25. 

LE MAUVAIS (CUNIN GRIDAINE I. Bronze. H. 6". 18/25. 

LE GATEUX ( HARLE PERE l . Bronze, H. 5". 12/30. 

L-AMOUREUX. Bronze, H. 7". 11/30. 

LE VISITEUR. Bronze, H. 6%". 23/30. 

LE PETIT PROPRIfiTAIRE. Bronze. II. 7". 23/30. 

LE PORTIER PARISIEN. Bronze. II. 6'^". 15/30. 

LE CONFIDENT. Bronze, H. 71s". 23/30. 
Bronze, H. 15-'i". 1.5/30. 

Bronze. II. 15-' i". 15/30. 

LE REPRf-SENTANT. Bronze. II. 7". 

LE RUSe (VIENNETl. Bronze, H. 7->i". 12/30. Page 39 

I.ERIKl R f:l>E\Tfi. Bronze. 11.6' j". 12/25. 

LE DfiDAIGNEUS i PRl .NKI.I.E i. Bronze. 11. S-y,". 30/30. 

TRI.^TEJUSQU'A LA \IOKT. I!r,.n/e. Il.6'.j". U/25. 

KK Kill KUK FT Ul Si- iCOMI'K UK \UiN 11 U>U:Kl. 
Bronze. 11. 7-'.,". 7/25. 



Born in Guadalajara, Spain. 1884. Studied in Barcelona and 
Madrid. To Paris, 1905; studied at Academie Julian, 1906-07; 
Maison Greber, 1911-14. Knew Picasso, Oris. To United States, 
1928. Extensive exhibitions in United States since then. Has re- 
ceived many prizes including: Victory Prize, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art, New York, 1942; first prize, Audubon Artists, 1957. 
Active as a teacher. Now teaches at Art Students League, New 
York. Lives in New York City. 

101. DANCER. 1949-57. Wood, H. 59" 
Signed on side, Jose de Creeft. 

Page 172 

111. DANCER HOLDING HER RIGHT FOOT. c. 1896-1911. Page 41 
Bronze, H. 20". Signed top of base. Degas. 

Foundry mark. Hebrard 68/ B. 

112. DANCER HOLDING HER RIGHT FOOT, c. 1896-1911. Page 42 
Bronze, H. 21". Signed top of base. Degas. 

Foundry mark. Hebrard 23/G. 

113. WOMAN WASHING HER LEFT LEG. c. 1896-1911. 
Bronze, H. 7%". Signed side of base. Degas. 
Foundry mark, Hebrard 61 /C. 

114. WOMAN GETTING OUT OF HER BATH. c. 1896-1911. 
Bronze, H. 16%". Signed on front. Degas. 

Foundry mark, Hebrard 71 /N. 


Born in Paris, 1834. Began drawing at an early age. Studied law 
briefly; enrolled in ficole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1855. Traveled 
extensively, particularly in Italy; visited United States. 1865-70 
contributed to Salon. Participated in first, second, third Impres- 
sionist exhibitions. First sculpture, about 1866. From 1879 
showed regularly at Salon des Independants. Did not exhibit 
sculpture after 1881, although he continued to work in this 
medium. Withdrew almost entirely from public exhibitions after 
1886. Died in Paris, 1917. 

115. PREGNANT WOMAN, c. 1896-1911. Bronze, H. 16%". Page 42 
Signed on front. Degas. 

Foundry mark, Hebrard 24/ E. 

Bronze, H. 18". Signed on bottom of foot on base. Degas. 
Foundry mark, Hebrard 62/ D. 

117. WOMAN WASHING HER LEFT LEG. c. 1896-1911. 
Bronze, H. 6". 17/G. 

118. WOMAN STRETCHING, c. 1896-1911. Bronze, H. 14%". 53/E. 

102. PRANCING HORSE, c. 1865-1881. Bronze, H. 10%". 
Signed in from. Degas. Foundry mark. Hebrard 65/D. 

103. APPLE PICKERS, c. 1865-1881. 

Bronze bas relief. 17% x 18%". Signed at bottom. Degas. 
Foundry mark, Hebrard 37/E. 

Bronze, H. 5%". 66/C. 

105. DANCER, c. 1882-1895. Bronze, H. 25%". 72/D. 

c. 1882-1895. Bronze, H. 6%". 7/J. 

Bronze, H. 12". Signed right rear top of base. Degas. Page 43 
Foundry mark, Hebrard 3/0. 


Born in Cleveland, 1908. To Pasadena. 1915. Studied at Skidmore 
College (B.S. in Art), Saratoga Springs, New York; Art Stu- 
dents League, New York; Atelier 17, Paris. Extensive travels in 
United Stales and Europe. Numerous group and one-man exhi- 
bitions of sculpture and graphics in United States and abroad. 
Group exhibitions include: Sculpture, U.S.A., The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1958; Aspects de la sculpture ameri- 
caine, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris, 1960. Among recent one- 
man shows; Gres Gallery, Washington, D. C, 1959; Willard 
Gallery, New York, 1959, 1960. Lives in New York City. 

119. JACOB'S LADDER. 1957. Bronze, 32'/- x (,¥/' 
Signed at bottom, Dehner 57. 

Page 187 

108. DANCER AT REST. r. 1882-1895. Bronze. H. 18". 
Signed on base. Degas. 

Foundry mark, Hebrard 63/ E. 

Bronze, H. 14Vt". Signed on side of base, Degas. 

Foundry mark, Hebrard 19/ F. 

110. THEMASSEUSE.c. 1896-1911. 

Bronze, 16% x 15". Signed top of base. Degas. 
Foundry mark, Hebrard 55/C. 

Page 40 


Born in La Paz, Bolivia. Studied at Academy of Fine Arts, La 
Paz, 1927-29. Held chair of sculpture and anatomy at Academy 
of Fine Arts, La Paz, 1930-38. Exhibitions include. Petit Palais, 
Paris, 1953; World House, New York, 1962. Lives in La Paz. 

120. PIGEON. 1958. Alabaster. H. 8", unique. 

Page 109 




Born in Chatou, France, 1880. 1898-99 studied at Acadeniie 
Carriere, Paris. From 1898-99 friendship with Matisse, Vlaminclc; 
worked with Vlatninck at Chatou. 1905 exhibited with Fauves 
at Salon d'Automne; visited London. 1907 contract with dealer 
Kahnweiler; produced first sculpture. Made masks from shell 
cases found on battlefields during World War I. First prize 
Pittsburgh International, 1928; retrospective, Salon des Inde- 
pendants, Paris, 1937. Executed ballet and theater decor includ- 
ing: Diaghilev production of La Boutique Fantastique, 1919; 
Satie's Jack in the Box, 1926. Among book illustrations: Coquiot's 
En Suivant la Seine, 1926; Rabelais' Pantagruel, 1943; Saint 
Exupery's Oeuvres, 1950. Died in Garehes, France, 1954. 

121. EXPRESSIVE HEAD. 1939-54. Bronze, H. 15%", 4/11. 

122. HEAD OF A WOMAN. 1939-54. Bronze, H. 17", 4/11. Page 89 

Born in Le Havre, 1901. 1918 studied painting, music, languages 
in Paris; interested in art of the insane. Traveled in Italy and 
Brazil. 1924 gave up art for business. Resumed painting in 1942. 
First one-man exhibition, 1944, Galerie Drouin, Paris. First ex- 
hibition in New York, 1946. Visited Sahara, 1947, 1948; New 
York, 1951, 1962. Has executed sculpture in a variety of unusual 
materials. Recent exhibitions include: Stadtisches Museum, 
Schloss Morsbroich, Leverkusen, 1957 ; Arthur Tooth and Sons, 
London, 1958; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959; regular exhibitions 
at Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York; retrospective. The Mu- 
seum of Modern Art, New York, 1962. Lives in Vence. 

129. THREE MASKS. 1935. Papier mache 

al Robert Polguere. 10',i x 7',4". bl Andre Claude. 9'i x 6". 
c) Rene Poultier. 11 x 6". 

130. ABUNDANCE. 1954. Slag Iron, H. 14%". 

Page 120 

josK nv. iiivKiiA 

Born in West Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1904. Studied at Studio 
School, Chicago. 1929-30. Worked as a machinist, blacksmith, 
tool and die maker, 1922-30. First one-man show in New York, 
Mortimer Levitt Gallery, 1946. Recent exhibitions include: Pitts- 
burgh International, 1958, 1961; Art Since 1950. Seattle World's 
Fair, 1962. Grants include: National Institute of Arts and Let- 
ters Grant, 1959. Lives in New York City. 

123. CONSTRUCTION, RED AND BLACK. 1954. Page 179 
Painted aluminium, H. 1^-/'. 

124. CONSTRUCTIONNO. 3.5. 1956. Steel, H. 17%". Page 178 

125. CONSTRUCTION NO. 76. 1961. 
Bronze forged rod, H. 6Vr'. 


Born in .\lonl-<lc-Marsa[i, France, 1874. To Paris, 1891; sludieil 
at ficole des Arts Decoralifs under a pupil of Carpcaux and at 
ficole des Beaux-Arts. First exhibition Salon des Artistes 
Frantais, 1898. 1907-14 worked for Rodin. Died in Paris, 1946. 

126. JEANNE i MLl.K. KAMIKNSKA i. 1921. I'uge .35 
Bronze. II. 15". Signed front of base, C. Despiau. 

Foundry mark nii reverse. I'alsuani. 

127. .STANDING FEMALE FlGURE.c. 192.5. Bronze. ll.3I'i". 
Signed IroiU of base. ('. Dcsiiiau. 

Foundry murk ri'ar rim of base. AUxis Kiiilier Fonileur I'aris. 


.Stone. I I, 1(/'. Illiiiiue. 

Page 35 


Born in Damville (Eurel, France. Brother of artists Marcel 
Duchamp, Suzanne Duchamp and Jacques Villon. Studied medi- 
cine before devesting self to sculpture. Self-taught as an artist. 
First exhibition, Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1901. 
Participated in annual exhibitions of Societe Nationale until 
1908. 1905 became Associate .Member of Salon d'.\utomne. where 
he exhibited annually until 1913. Work also shown at Salon 
des Independants, Section d'Or ; in Prague, Berlin. Ghent; in 
Armory Show, New York, 1913. Joined French army, 1914. Died 
1918, Cannes. 

131. TORSO OF A YOUNG MAN. 1910. Plaster, H. 24". Page 62 
Signed on base, R, Dnchump-l'iUon. 

132. HEADOFBAUDELAIRE. 1911. Bronze. II. IS'V'. Page 65 

133. THE BASIN. 1911. Bronze, H. 22%". 
Signed on base, Duchamp-Villon. 

Foundry mark edge of base, Louis Carre -Editeur. 

134. MAGGY. 1912. Bronze, H. 23%". Page 64 
Signed right side, Duchamp-Villon. 

Foundry mark on reverse, Georges Ruttier -Fondeur Paris. 

135. HORSE AND RIDEK. 1914. Brcn/c II. 8', ".2/8. Wgebl 

136. HEAD OF A HORSE. 1914. Bronze. II. 18',s". Page 66 
Foiind;y mark. C. Rudier 7 H. 

137. SE.ATEI) WOMAN. I»14. Brnn/.e. II. 27',i". Page 63 
Fonndi \ HKirk. (,'. Rudier. 

138. LITTLE HORSE. 1914. Bronze. II. ll"i". .5/8. Page 67 

139. HEAD OF PROFESSOR COSSET. 1917. Page 64 
Brnn/e. II. 11^". 1/8. 



Born in Philadelphia, 1844. 1861-66 studied drawing at Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of Fine Arts and anatomy at Jefferson Medical 
School, both in Philadelphia. To Paris, 1866, studied at ficole 
des Beaux-Arts under Gerome. Returned to Philadelphia, 1870. 
Taught at Pennsylvania Academy, 1876-86. Joined Society of 
American Artists, 1880. From 1886 taught at Philadelphia Art 
Students League, organized by his pupils. To New York, taught 
at National Academy of Design, 1888-94. Elected to National 
Academy, 1902. Died in Philadelphia, 1916. 

140. KNITTING. 1881. Bronze plaque, 18% x 14ys". Page 163 
Signed on front bottom, Thomas Eakins, 1881. 

Foundry mark, Roman Bronze Works, N. Y . 

141. SPINNING. 1881. Bronze plaque, 18% x 14%". 
Signed on front bottom, Thomas Eakins, 1881. 
Foundry mark. Roman Bronze JForks. N. Y. 

142. ARCADIA. 188.1 Plaster. llVs x 24". Signed, Eakins. Page 163 

Wax, 6% X 11%". Signed, Eakins. 

146. HEAD OF JOSEPH CONRAD. 1924-25. Page 142 
Bronze, H. 17". Signed on reverse, Epstein. 

147. THE VISITATION. 1926. Bronze, H. 65". Page 143 
Signed back of base. Epstein. This cast made in 1955. 

14«. HEAD OF ALBERT EINSTEIN, c. 1933. Bronze, H. 17". 

149. CHRIST FIGURE, c. 1957. Lead, H. 251/2". 


Born in Briihl, near Cologne. 1891. Studied at Bonn University. 
Self-taught as an artist. A founder of Dada movement, Cologne, 
1919; a founder of Surrealist movement, Paris, 1924. Painter, 
sculptor, illustrator, poet. Contributed to many Dada and Sur- 
realist publications. Among books he has written and illustrated: 
Histoire Naturelle, 1925; La Femme 100 Tetes, 1929; Semaine 
de Bonte, 1934; Beyond Painting, 1948. 1937 designed sets for 
Jarry's Vbu Enchaine. 1945 collaborated with Hans Richter on 
him Dreams That Money Can Buy. One-man exhibitions through- 
out Europe and United States. Recent major retrospectives: 
Musee d'Art Moderne, Pari.s, 1959; The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1961. Lives in Paris. 


Born in Belmont, Massachusetts, 1927. Studied at Rhode Island 
School of Design, Providence; Yale University, New Haven; 
with Albers and de Rivera. One-man exhibitions: Stable Gallery, 
New York, 1960, 1962. Group shows include: Recent Sculpture 
U.S.A., The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1959; Sao Paulo 
Bienal, 1961. Currently Director of Sculpture, Yale University, 
Department of Art. Lives in Durham, Connecticut. 

144. CONSTRUCTIONNO. 1.1961-62. Muntz metal, H. 17". Page 179 
Initialed, RE '62. 

145. CONSTRUCTION NO. 2. 1961-62. Muntz metal, H. 14". 


150. MOON MAD. 1944. Bronze, H. 38", edition of 6. Page 118 

151. MOTHER AND DAUGHTER. 1959. Page 119 
Bronze, H. H'/s", 6/6. 

152. BOSSE DE NAGE RESSUCITfi. 1959. Bronze, H. 19", 6/6. 

HEIIHEHT feriier 

Born in New York City, 1906. Studied at College of the City of 
New York, 1924-27; Columbia University, 1928; Beaux- Arts In- 
stitute of Design, New York. First one-man show, Midtown 
Gallery, New York, 1937. Recent group exhibitions include: 
Nature in Abstraction, Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York, 1958; Pittsburgh International, 1958; //. Documenta, 
Kassel, 1959; Art Since 1950, Seattle WoHd's Fair, 1962. Lives 
in New York City. 

Born in New York City, 1880. Studied evenings at Art Students 
League, New York. Worked in bronze foundry, 1901. To Paris, 
1902; studied at ficole des Beaux- Arts and Academic Julian. To 
England, 1905; later became British subject. Associated with 
Vorticists. Paris, 1912, associated with Brancusi, Modigliani. 
1913, founding member of London Group. First one-man show. 
Twenty-one Gallery. London, 1913. Knighted, 1954. Executed 
architectural sculpture, large scale figures as well as portrait 
busts. Among his major public commissions are.: The Tomb of 
Oscar Wilde, Paris, 1912; Virgin and Child, Convent of the Holy 
Child Jesus, London, 1952; Monument to the Dead oj the Work- 
ing Classes, Trade Union Building, London, 1958. Died in Lon- 
don, 1959. 

153. PERSONAGE NO. 1. 1957. Brass, H. 25" 
Signed, rear of base, Ferber 57. 


Page 185 

Born in Fargo, North Dakota, 1895. Studied painting at Min- 
neapolis Institute of Arts, 1914-17. Began sculpture in wood 
c. 1922. After 1928 worked exclusively as a sculptor. 1932 re- 
ceived Guggenheim Fellowship. Preferred direct carving in 
stone ; turned to metal for reasons of health, 1939. Died in New 
York, 1942. 


154. PIETA. c. 1925. Wood, H. 13" 


1.55. MOTHER AND CHILD ( NOT YET ) . c. 1936. Page 171 

Stone, H. 13%". 

156. TRIUMPHOFTHEEGG. 1937. Cast stone, H. 12". Page 171 

157. WOMAN WITH FOX. c. 1937. Cast stone, H. ISMi". 

Born in Maella. Spain, 1881. Raised in Barcelona. Studied at 
Academy of Fine Arts, Barcelona. To Paris, 1906. .Association 
with Picasso and cubists. 1914 returned to Barcelona, where he 
taught. Pioneered in techniques of metal sculpture. Died in 
Spain, 1934. 

162. PIERROT, c. 1920. Sheet metal and silver, H. 8". 

Page 96 


Born in Le Mans, 1885. 1903 studied at Academic Julian, Paris. 
1908 attended Academie Ranson with Denis and Segonzac for a 
few months. 1910-12 executed sculpture after meeting Bourdelle, 
Duchamp-Villon and Maillol. 1910-11 traveled in Germany and 
Italy. Friendship with Villon and Gleizes. 1912 exhibited at 
Salon d'Automne and Salon des Independants; 1912-13 showed 
with Section d'Or. Military service, 1914-18. Died at Grasse, 1925. 

158. TORSO OF A WOMAN, c. 1910. Bronze, H. 16", 2/6. 
Foundry mark, Alexh Hiulier, Foruleur. 

159. THE ITALIAN GIRL. 1912. Bronze, H. 24". 
Signed on bottom, R de la Fresnaye, 2/6. 
Foundry mark, Alexis Riidier, Fondeur. 

Page 88 


Born in Paris, 1848. Worked as a stockbroker. Began to draw, 
1873. Friendship with Pissarro. 1880-84 showed in Fifth, Sixth 
and Seventh Impressionist Exhibitions. 1883 left stockbroker's 
job to devote himself to painting. Visited Brittany, 1886, 1888 
(with Van Gogh 1 , 1889. Friendship with Bernard; associated 
with artists of Nabi group. 1887 visited Panama, Martinique. 1888 
first one-man exhibition, Boussad and Valadon's. 1891 to Tahiti; 
returned to Europe, 1893. Settled in Tahiti again, 1895. 1901 to 
Marquesas, where he died in 1903. 

163. TAHITIAN FIGURE. 1893. Bronze. H. 11%" 
Foundry mark, Valsuani4/10. 

164. HEAD. Bronze, H. 15". 

Page 40 


Born in Thurlow, England, 1930. .Studied at Chelsea School of 
Art. Group and one-man exhibitions in Europe and United 
States since 1954. Recent one-man shows: Waddington Galleries, 
London, 1961; Felix Landau Gallery, Los Angeles, 1961; Bertha 
Schaefer Gallery, New York, 1961. Lives in London. 

160. FALLEN BIRD MAN. 1961. Bronze, L. 72", 1/3. 

Page 151 


Born in Stanipa, Switzerland. 1901. Until 1915 studied with his 
father Giovanni Giacometii in Slanipa. later at ficole des -•Vrts 
et Metiers, Geneva; 1922-25 in Paris under Bourdelle. 1930-32 
associated with Surrealists in Paris. First one-man exhibition in 
Paris, 1933. Represented in Venice Biennale, 1956; Brussels 
World's Fair, 1958; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959; Pittsburgh 
International, 1961. Lives in Paris. 

IVAITIM <>.%B«» 

Horn in Bryansk, Russia, 1890. Brother of Antoine Pevsner. 
1909-14 studied medicine, natural science, then art history, Uni- 
versity of Munich. Met Kandinsky in 1910. Spent war years in 
Copenhagen and Oslo. 1917-20 taught in Moscow with Kandin- 
sky, Tallin, Malevitch. 1923 to Berlin; joined I^ovembergnippe. 
Taught at Bauhaus, 1928. 1932-35, Paris; became member of 
Abstraction-Creation group. To London, 19.36; edited magazine 
Circle, International Survey of Constritrlive Art with Ben 
Nicholson and J. L. Martin. After visit to United States, lived in 
St. Ives, Cornwall, 19.39..15. To United Slates, 1946, settled in 
Woodbury, (ionn., where he still lives. Has lectured at Graduate 
School of Design, Harvard University since 1948. 

Plastic, H. 12". 

.*^igned on base. Ctibo. 

Page 93 

165. MAN AND WOMAN. 1928. Bronze, H. 12',4". 
Signed top of base. A. Giacunietti. 
Foundry mark. 5//i\ve Fundenr Paris 1/6. 

166. .MAN. 1929. Bronze, H. 15\':i". 

Signed on side, Alberto Giacometii 1929 3/6. 

Page 110 

167. RECLINING WO.MAN. 1929. Painted bronze, 1.. 16--.s". Page 111 

168. TALL FK'.l HE. 1917. Hrnnz,'. II, 79". 
Signed top of base. Alberto Ciaconietti I ti. 
Foundry mark on base al back. 5(/.s5c Fondeur Paris. 

MM. WOMAN. 19.53. Bron/.e. II. 19' i". 

Signed on base, 195:i/ .llberto Ciacometti 2/6. 
Foundry mark, Sasso Fonderia. 

170. |)IK(;(I..STl 1)\ I U(tM LIFE, 195.5. Bronze, H. 15's". 

Signeil on back. Albert Ciacometti 2 0. Foundry mark, Susse. 


171. BUST OF DIEGO. 1956. Bronze, H. 11%" 
Signed on front, Alberto Giacometti 2/6. 
Foundry mark, Siisse Fondeur. 

172. DOG. 1956. Bronze, H. 171/2". 
Signed on base, Alberto Giacometti 3/8. 
Foundry mark, Siisse Fondeur Paris. 

Page 114 

173. THIN STANDING FIGURE. 1956. Bronze, H. 12%", 1/6. 
Signed top of base, Alberto Giacon\etti. 
Foundry mark, Siisse Fondeur. 

174. SEATED WOMAN. 1956. Bronze, H. 30%", 1/6. 

175. BUST OF DIEGO. 1957. Bronze, H. 24%", 1/6. 

Page 112 

176. BUST OF DIEGO ON STELE. 1958. Bronze, H. 65". 
Signed on bottom, A. Giacometti. Stamped, top of stele, 1/6. 

177. MONUMENTALHEAD. 1960. Bronze, H. 37 ■...". 1/6. Page 115 
Signed on base, Alberto Giacometti. 

Foundry mark on base rear, Susse Fondeur Paris. 

178. BUSTOFAMAN (DIEGO). Bronze, H. 11%". 
Signed bottom of base, .Alberto Giacometti 4/6. 
Foundry mark rear bottom, Susse Fondeur. 

Page 113 

179. "WALKING MAN, Bronze, H. 26%", unique. 
Signed top of base, A. Giacometti. 


Born in Paris, 1911. Studied at ficole des Arts Decoratifs, Nice, 
1928 ; 6eoIe des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1931. First exhibition, Galerie 
Bretau, Paris, 1945. Executed public monuments: at Voreppe, 
1946; Grenoble, 1950; Chapelle en Vercors, 1951; Vassieux, 
1951. Exbibitions include: Sao Paulo Bienal, 1954; //. Docu- 
menta, Kassel, 1959. Lives in Paris. 

180. LITTLE SPHERE. 1947. Bronze, H. 16%", 1/5. 

181. PAQUIER. 1951-60. Marble, H. 14%". Page 108 
Signed left edge, Gi7io/i' 1951-60. 

182. A LITTLE TALE FROM CRETE. Bronze, H. 24", 2/5. 


Born in Paul's Valley, Oklahoma, 1925. Studied at University of 
Texas, Austin. 1941-42; briefly at Jepson Art Institute, The Art 
Center School with Rico Lebrun, Los Angeles, 1946; School of 
Painting and Sculpture at San Miguel Allende, Mexico City, 
1948; Art Students League, New York, 1949. Traveled in Europe 
and Africa. Lived in Taos, New Mexico, 1952-54. First one-man 
show, Perls Galleries, New York, 1950. Numerous shows since 
then. Most recent one-man exhibition, Catherine Viviano Gallery, 
New York, 1961. Lives in New York City. 

183. HEAD. 1955. Bronze, H. 9%". 
Signed on reverse, JG. 

184. RECLINING WOMAN. 1956. Bronze, L. 13". Page 197 
Signed on reverse, IG. 

185. HEAD. 1957. Alabaster, H. 9%". 

186. CARESS. 1958. Marble, H. 23". 


Born in Barcelona, 1876. Apprenticed to his father, a goldsmith. 
Studied painting evenings at Barcelona School of Fine Arts. 
1900 to Paris. Devoted self primarily to painting. Association 
with Picasso, Brancusi, Manolo, Max Jacob. From about 1926 
devoted self almost exclusively to sculpture. 1930-32 worked with 
Picasso, giving him technical assistance on welded iron con- 
structions. Became member of Cercle et Carre group. Died in 
Arceuil, 1942. Posthumous retrospectives include: Musee d'Art 
Moderne, Paris, 1952; The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
and The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 1956. 

187. CAGOULARD. 1934. Bronze, H. 6". 
Foundry mark, Susse 1/9. 

188. HEAD OF A GIRL. 1936. Bronze, H. 12%' 
Signed in front, Gonzalez 1/6. 
Foundry mark at bottom, Susse Fondeur. 

Page 99 

189. MONTSERRAT MASK, CRYING. 1936. Bronze, H. 9". Page 98 
Signed and marked inside, c. by Roloda, Gonzalez, 

5/6 Susse Fondeur. 

190. MASK, CALLED RELIGIOUS. 1941-42. Bronze, H. 6%", 1/9. 

191. HEAD OF MONTSERRAT II. 1942. Bronze, H. 12%", 5/6. 

192. ABSTRACT FIGURE. 1942. Bronze, H. 13". Page 99 


Born in Buffalo, 1912. Studied at Albright Art School, Buffalo, 
1923-25; Art Institute of Buffalo, 1929-35; Atelier 17, New York, 
1944-47. Taught at Art Institute of Buffalo; Federal Art Project, 
New York; Pratt Institute, Brooklyn; Smith College, North- 
ampton, Mass. ; Atelier 17, New York. Now teaches drawing, 
graphics, sculpture at Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass. First 
one-man show, Orrefors Gallery, New York, 1942. Awards in- 
clude First Prize, Boston Arts Festival, 1955. Executed murals 
for Puerto Rican Information Center, New York, 1958. Lives in 
New York City. 

193. FOUR MUSICIANS. 1957. Bronze, H. 14", unique. 
Signed, P. Grippe. 

Page 187 



Born near Kolomyja, Austria, 1904. To United States, 1921. 
Studied at Educational Art Alliance School; Beaux-Arts Insti- 
tute and Art .Students League, all in New York. First exhibition 
in New York, 1932. Commission for New York World's Fair, 
1938-39. Recent one-man exhibitions: Whitney Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, New York, 1959; Forum Gallery, New York, 1962. 
Lives in New York City. 

194. PERFORMERS (SEE SAW). 1944. Bronze, L. 19". Page 173 
Signed on bottom, Chaim Gross 44, 


197. WOMAN. 1956. Bronze, H. 20%". 
Signed front corner, Hajdu. 

Foundry mark on base at rear, Vahiiani 2/5. 

198. ADOLESCENCE. 1957. .Marble, H. 35--!4". 
Signed at bottom, Hajdu. 

199. THE BIRD, URANUS II. 1957. 

Bronze, H. 39", 1/3. Signed top of base, Hajdu 1957. 
Foundry mark on rim of base, Valsuani. 

200. CORINNE. 1958. Marble, II. 33VV'. 

201. SYLVIE. 1958. Pink marble, H. 20%". 
Signed on base, Hajdu. 

Page 106 

Page 107 
Page 107 

Born in New York City, 1921. First studied chemistry and worked 
as a chemist. Then studied at Cooper Union, New York; Brook- 
lyn Museum Art School. 1950 received Fulbright Grant, studied 
in Athens. Received Tiffany Award, 1954-55; Guggenheim Fel- 
lowship, 1957-58. Extensive exhibitions since 1956, including 
Venice Biennale, 1956, 1958; Pittsburgh International, 1958, 
1961. Most recent one-man show, Stephen Radich Gallery, New 
York, 1962. At present working in Rome. 

195. HELMET V (ELMO). 1959-61. Bronze, H. 6'3", 1/4. Page 194 


Born in Constantinople, 1905. 1921 to United States to study; 
attended Iowa State College, Ames. To Chicago. 1925 to New 
York, where he studied at Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, 1926- 
27; Art Students League, 1927-28. Worked on W.P.A. Federal 
Art Project, New York, 1935-39. 1941 settled in Woodstock, New 
York. Traveled in Europe, 1950-51. First exhibited at The Mu- 
seum of Modern Art, New York, 1933. (Jroup shows since then, 
including Annuals, Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York; 12 Americans, The Museum of .Modern Art. New York, 
1956. Lives in Woodstock, New York. 

196. LAMONTViLLE ELM. 1952. Elrnwood. 11. 18". uni.|ue. Page 202 

iiTiK:v':\'i<: iiA.iitii 

Born in Turda, Kujnania, 1907. 1927 to Paris. Studied nt ficole 
dc8 Beaux-Arts, under Bourdellc and Naturalized 
French citizen since 1930. Traveled in Greece, Crete, llnlliind. 
Worked as a stone grinder. First one-man exhibition at (Valerie 
Jeanne Bucher, Paris, 1939. Recent exhibitions include Sao 
Paulo Bienal, 1956; Pittsbinpli International. 1958; //. Uocu- 
inenta, Kassel, 1959. Lives in Bagneux. a suburb of Paris. 


Born in New York City, 1917. Studied in New York, Colorado 
and Arizona. Duiing war years worked with Breton, Ernst, Du- 
champ on review VVV, New York. First one-man show. Art of 
This Century, New York, 1945. Group exhibitions include: Sao 
Paulo Bienal, 1957; Nature in Abstraction, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1958; Pittsburgh International, 1958, 
1961; An Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 1962. Lives in New 
York City. 

202. FRUIT TREE. 1956. Steel and bronze, H. 5'9' V'. Page 188 

203. SEATED FIGURE WITH WINGS. 1958. Bronze, H. 13". 
Signed on reverse, Hare 59. 


Born in Wakefield. Yorkshire, 1903. Studied at Leeds School of 
Art, 1920; Royal College of Art, London. 1921-24. 1924-25 Italy. 
Returned to England, 1926. Associated with Moore, Arp, Bran- 
cusi. Member of 7 & 5 group, 1931-36; Unit One group; 1933-34; 
Abstraction-Creation group, Paris, 19,33-35; founding member 
Penwith Society oj Arts. Cornwall, 1949. First one-man exhibi- 
tion, Beaux-.\rts Gallery, London, 1927. Has exhibited extensively 
since then, including Venice Biennale, 1950 (retrospective) : 
Brussels World's Fair, 19.58: //. Documenta. Kassel, 1959; Siio 
Paulo Bienal. 19.59 K;ran<l Prize I. Has lived in St. Ives, Corn- 
wall since 1936. 

204. liECLINlNG FIGI UK. 1933. Alaha-t,T. II. 7'/', 

205. I'I:M)(U U. 1917. Painted wood. L 28", uiiii|ue. 

206. HEAD. 1952. .Mahogany and string. H. 17". 

207. PORTIIMEOR iSEA FORM i. 19,58. 
Bronze, II. 30'-.'", unique. 

Page 1.53 
Page 152 
Page 153 



Born in Gaffney, South Carolina, 1930. Studied at University of 
North Carolina. First one-man exhibition, Leo Castelli Gallery, 
New York, 1960. Group exhibitions include: Recent Sculpture, 
U.S.A., The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1959; Pittsburgh 
International, 1961 ; Art Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 1962. 
Lives in Long Island City. New York. 

208. DUNCE. 1960. Welded steel and plaster, H. 34", unique.Page 194 
Signed on top edge of base, Ed. Higgins 1960. 

glass windows in church, St. Jacques de Montrouge. From 1949 
devoted himself exclusively to sculpture. Numerous exhibitions, 
primarily in France, since participation in first group show, 
Galerie La Hune, Paris, 1943. Recent exhibitions include Pitts- 
burgh International. 1961; one-man show, Galerie Claude Ber- 
nard, Paris, 1962. Lives in Paris. 

212. DAVID. 1959. Bronze, H. 60", 2/6. 
Signed at bottom, Ipousteguy. 
Foundry mark at bottom, Susse Fondeur. 

Page 121 


Born in Paris, 1925. Orleans, 1937-44; Indochina, 1945-47. Stud- 
ied at ficole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1947-51. Numerous group 
exhibitions including Salon de Mai, Paris, 1956, 1957, 1959, 1960, 
1961; Pittsburgh International, 1958; I Biennale de Paris 
(Critics' Prize), 1959; Salon de Mai, Amsterdam. 1961. One-man 
shows: Galerie Palmes, Paris, 1954; Galerie du Dragon, Paris, 
1958; The Contemporaries, New York, 1959, 1961. Has lived in 
Paris since 1947. 


Born in Copenhagen, 1912. First one-man exhibition, Copen- 
hagen, 1944. To Paris, 1947. Extensive exhibitions, including: 
one-man show, Kunsthalle, Basel, 1958; Brussels World's Fair, 
1958; Pittsburgh InternationaL 1958, 1961; //. Documenta, 
Kassel, 1959; Art Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 1962. Lives 
in Montfermeil, France. 

Iron, H. 20%". 

Page 122 

209. FOUGASSERIE II. 1959. Bronze, H. 1I%". 
Signed, 59 Hiquily. 

Page 121 



Born in Chicago, 1935. Studied at Art Institute of Chicago, 
1953-57. Traveled in Europe, 1957-58 on Nelson Raymond Travel- 
ing Fellowship. Exhibitions include one-man show, Alan Gallery, 
New York, 1958; Pittsburgh International, 1961. Teaches at 
University of Illinois, Urbana. Lives in Chicago. 

210. LITTLE VECTOR. 1958. Steel, H. 17" 
Monogrammed, bottom center. 

Page 189 

Born in Allendale, South Carolina, 1930. Studied at University 
of South Carolina. Traveled in Japan. 1952 to New York City, 
where he still lives. First one-man exhibition, Leo Castelli Gal- 
lery, New York, 1958. Since then many group and one-man shows 
in United States and Europe. Group exhibitions include: Venice 
Biennale, 1958; 16 Americans, The Museum of Modern Art, 
New York, 1959; Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme, Paris, 
1959; American Vanguard, U.S. I. A. show traveling in Europe. 

214. FLAG. 1960. Bronze relief, 12% x 18%", 1/4. 

Page 205 


Born in Berlin, 1934. 1951 began studies at Hochschule fiir 
Bildende Kiinste, with Hans Uhlmann, Berlin; first work in 
metal. Traveled to Spain, 1954; in United States, Mexico, 1957. 
Group exhibitions at Amerika Haus. Berlin, 1953; North Caro- 
lina Museum of Art, Raleigh, 1957. One-man shows in Germany. 

Bronze, 13 x 13 x 13". 


Page 96 

Born at Dun-sur-Meuse, France, 1920. Studied with Robert 
Lesbounit, Paris, 1938. 1947-48 executed frescoes and stained 


Born in Jacksonville, Florida, 1925. Studied at University of 
Florida, Gainesville, 1942-44; Cooper Union, New York, 1945-48; 
Brooklyn Museum Art School, 1948-49. 1949-50 Fulbright Grant ; 
worked at Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome. Instructor in Sculp- 
ture, Brooklyn Museum Art School, 1953-60. Executed mural for 
SS United States. 1952; for Banker's Trust Co., New York, 1959. 
Exhibitions include one-man shows, Alan Gallery, New York, 
1954, 1960; participation in Pittsburgh International, 1958; As- 
pects de la sculpture americaine, Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris, 
1960. Lives in New York City. 

215. NOISY GIRL. 1956. Bronze, H. 35". 

216. VENUS. 1956. Bronze, H. 62%", 1/3. Page 198 



Born in New York City, 1910. Studied at Cooper Union, New 
York, 1929; Beaux- Arts Institute of Design, New York, 1930-34. 
First one-man show, Galleria del Zodiaco, Rome, 1950. Group 
exhibitions include: Recent Sculpture U.S.A., The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1959; Sao Paulo Bienal, 1959; An 
Since 1950. Seattle World's Fair, 1962. Lives in New York City. 

217. NANTUCKET. 1960. Wood, H. 27" 
Signed at bottom, KOHN. 

Page 203 

223. ETERNAL FORCE. 1917. Bronze, H. 12%". 
Signed back of base, G. Lachaise 1917, N. 2. 
Foundry mark at rear rim, .4. Kunst. N. Y. 

224. WALKING WOMAN. 1922. Bronze, H. 19". 
Signed back of base, G. Lachaise 22. 

225. EGYPTIAN HEAD. 1923. Bronze, H. 13". 
Signed at bottom, Lachaise 1923. 

Page 166 

Page 167 

Bronze, H. 13%". Signed at bottom, G. Lachaise. 

227. WOMAN ON A COUCH. 1928. Bronze, L. 16" 
Signed on back al bottom. C. Lachaise 1928. 

Page 167 


Born in Konigsherg, 1867. Graphic artist and sculptor. .Studied 
painting and drawing in Berlin. 1885 and in Munich, 1888-89. 
Married Karl Kollwitz, a doctor, 1891; settled in Berlin. Visited 
Paris, 1904; studied sculpture at Academic Julian. Met Rodin. 
Lived in Italy, 1907. First exhibited sculpture at Freien Sezes- 
sion, Berlin, 1916. 1920 elected (o Prussian Academy of Arts. 
1927 visited Russia. Expelled from Prussian Academy and for- 
bidden to exhibit by Nazi regime. Died in Moritzburg, 1945. 

218. REST. 1936. Bronze bas-relief, 3% x 12%". 
Signed on back. Kol/witz. 
Foundry mark on back, Berlin. 

219. SELF-PORTRAIT. 1936. Bronze, H. 14%". 
Signed on back of head at bottom, Kollwitz. 

220. GRIEF. 1938. Bronze bas-rolief. lOVi x 10". 
Signed on side, Kollwitz. 

Foundry mark on side, Berlin. 

Bronze, H. 28". Signed on back, Kollwitz. 
Foundry mark. Modern An Foundry, N. Y. 
Edilion of 6. 

Page 51 

Page 50 

228. OGUNQUIT TORSO, c. 1928. Polished bronze, H. 10%". 


Born in Paris. 1885. Apprenticed to a decorator. Studied draw- 
ing in Paris. 1911 joined Cubists. First exhibition Salon des 
Independants, Paris, 1913. 1915 began polychrome sculpture; 
1916 first papiers colles. Decor for Ballets Russes, Le Train Bleu, 
1924. Book illustrations include Idylls of Theocritus, 1945; The 
Golden Ass, 1949 ; Three Stories by Saroyan, 1954. Executed 
monumental sculpture for University of Caracas, 1954. Among 
his extensive exhibitions: Section d*Or, Salon des Independants, 
Paris, 1920; Cubism and Abstract Art, The Museum of Modern 
Art, New York. 1936; Venice Biennale, 1948. 1950; Sao Paulo 
Bienal. 1953 I sculpture prize I ; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959. 
Died in Paris, 1954. 

229. GUITAR AND CLARINET. 1920. Page 71 
Polychrome stone, 12% x 13' i;", unique. 

230. CUBIST WOMAN. 1921. Bronze, H. iV/'. 

231. MATERNITY. 1932. Bronze, L. 55", 1/6. Page 71 
Signed on rear base. ///. l/(t. Foundry mark on rear rim. I'alsuani. 


FEn^'.A.-vn I.E4;Eil 

Born in I'aris, 1882. Studied al f'colc Bernard I'alissy. Paris, 
1895; ficole Nalionale des Beaux-Arls, Paris, 1898-1905. 1906 
to United Slates, settled in Boston. 1912 to New York City. Met 
Paul Manship and became his assistant, 1913. Architcclural 
sculpture includes: frieze for Telephone Building, New York, 
1921; reliefs for Rockefeller Center, 1931; first one-man show. 
Bourgeois Galleries, New York. 1918; Stieglitz' Intimate Gal- 
lery, New York, 1927; Retrospective. The Museum of Mciderri 
Art, New York, 1935. Died in 1935. 

Born in .Vrgentan, Normandy, 1881. .Vpprenticed to an architect 
in Caen. 1900 to Paris. Worked as architectural draughtsman. 
.Studied at Gcole des Arts Decoratifs and Academic Julian. As- 
sociated with cubists. 1910-14. Stage designs for Swedish Ballet, 
1921-23; 1924 film Ballet Mecaniqiie; 19-16 collaborated on film 
Dreams that Money can Buy. Visits to United Stales, 1931, 1938, 
1941. -15. 1949 mosaic for church facade at Assy; 1951 stained 
glass window for church at .Assy. Executed scuipUire in laler 
vears of career. Died in Gif-sur-Yvetle, 19.55. 

222. .STANDING WOMAN, c. 1912. lirdnze, II. 7'-". 
Signed on back, G. Lachaise. 

232. HEAD OF A W OMAN. 1950,52. 

Rronzc bas-relief. 18 x 13". 1/8. Signed. F. I.cger I. S. 

Page 90 


Born in Duisberg-Meiderich, Germany. 1881. Attended Kunstge- 
werbeschule. 1895-99 and Akadeniie. 1901-06. both in Diisseldorf. 
Visited Italy, 1905. Settled in Paris, 1910. Met Matisse, Derain, 
Brancusi. Friendship with Archipenko. Second trip to Italy, 
1912. 1914 to Berlin. Lived in Zurich, 1917-18. Returned to Ber- 
lin, 1919 and was elected to Berlin Academy. Exhibitions before 
his death include: Cologne Sonderbund. 1912; Berlin Secession, 
1916; Kunsthaus, Ziirich, 1917. Died in Berlin, 1919. 

233. TORSO. 1910-11. Bronze. H. 261,4". 

Signed on back of base, W^. Lehmbrnck. 
Foundry mark on back of base. Berlin. 

Page 47 

234. HEAD OF A GIRL. 1913. Bronze. H. 16". Page 47 

Signed on back, W'\ Lehmbrnck. Foundry mark on back. Vahuani. 

Cast stone, H. 36". 

Page 46 

240. MAN WITH GUITAR, c. 1922. Bronze plaque. 7% x 10%". 
Signed on face at top, /. Lipchitz. 

Foundry mark, \ ahnani. 

241. FIGURE. 1926-30. Bronze, H. 85%". Page 101 
Signed on lower base, /. Lipchitz 1926-30. 

Bronze, H. 16". Signed on rear base, /. Lipchitz. 

Foundry mark on rear base, Vahuani. 

243. JOYOFORPHEUS. 1938. Bronze, H.lSVi". Page 100 

244. RAPE OF EUROPA II. 1938. Bronze, H. 16%". Page 100 
Signed on top of base, /. Lipchitz 7/7. 

245. BEGGAR SELLING FLOWERS. 1955-.56. Bronze, H. 141/2". 
Signed on rear of base with thumb print and /. Lipchitz. 



Born in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, 1922. Studied at art 
school in La Chaux-dc-Fonds; stonecutting in Geneva. 1946 to 
Paris; studied at Atelier Ossip Zadkine; Academic de la Grande 
Chaumiere. Visited United Slates, 1951-52. Exhibited at Salon 
des Realites Nouvelles, Paris, 1959. First one-man show, 1960. 
Lives in Paris. 

236. PERSONAGE. 1960. Bronze. H. 10" 

Page 122 

Born in New York City, 1903. Studied at The College of the City 
of New York, 1922-23; Columbia University, 1923-27. Self-taught 
as sculptor. First one-man show, A.C.A. Gallery, New York, 1938. 
Recent exhibitions: Sao Paulo Bienal, 1957 (acquisition prize) ; 
Venice Biennale (special room), 1958; Pittsburgh International, 
19.58, 1961 ; Art Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 1962. Received 
grant from National Institute of Arts and Letters, 1958; Gug- 
genheim Fellowship, 1960. Lives in New York City. 

246. WINTER SOLSTICE NO. 2. 1957. Nickel and silver, H. 19". 

247. MANDRAKE. 1959. Bronze on monel metal, H. 36". Page 186 


Born in Druskieniki, Lithuania. 1891. 1909 to Paris, studied at 
£cole des Beaux-Arts and Academic Julian. 1913 met Picasso: 
association with cubism. Friendship with Gris, Matisse, Modig- 
liani. First one-man exhibition Galerie Leonce Rosenberg, Paris, 
1920. Joined Esprit Nouveau group, 1922. First one-man exhibi- 
tion in United States, Brummer Gallery, New York, 1935. 1939-40 
lived in Toulouse. 1941 to New York. 1953 settled in Hastings- 
on-Hudson. New York, where he still lives. Recent major exhibi- 
tions include: retrospective, The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 1954; Brussels World's Fair. 1958: //. Docnmenta. Kassel, 

237. HEAD. 1915. Bronze, H. 24". Page 69 
Signed on back with thumb mark and Lipchitz. 

Foundry mark, 2/7. 

238. BATHER. 1915. Bronze. H. 32Vi.", 2/7. Page 69 

239. READER. 1919. Bronze, H. 30". Page 69 
Signed on bottom rear with thumb mark and Lipchitz. 
Foundry mark on bottom rear, 5/7. 


Born in Banyuls-sur-Mer, 1861. Studied at ficole des Beaux-Arts, 
Paris, under Cabanel and Gerome. Worked as a painter and 
tapestry designer. Friendship with Bourdelle and Denis; met 
Gauguin. First showed sculpture at Salon. 1896. Abandoned 
tapestry and turned exclusively to sculpture because of failing 
eyesight, 1900. 1902 first one-man exhibition, VoUard's, Paris. 
Exhibited regularly at Salon d'Automne. 1908 visited Greece. 
First exhibition in United States, Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, 
1925. Book illustrations include: Virgil's Eclogues, 1912-13 
(published 1925 ) ; Ovid's .4rt of Love. 1933; Verlaine's Chansons 
pour Elle, 1939. Lived in Banyuls and Marly-le-Roy. Died in 
Banyuls, 1944. 

248. BATHER WITH RAISED ARMS. 1898. Bronze, H. 12%". 

249. YOUTH. 1910. Bronze, H. 39%". 
Signed on base. M. 

Foundry mark on rear of base, Alexis Rudier, 
Fondeur, Paris, #3. 

Page 29 


250. KNEELING NUDE. 19.35. Bronze, H. SSV/'. 
Signed on bottom, A. Maillol 2/6. 
Fountli^- mark on rear, Georges Rudier Fondeur, Paris. 

Page 29 

251. NYMPH. 1936-38. Bronze, H. 60%". Page 28 

Signed on rear of base, M. Foundry mark on rear of base, Rudier. 


Born in Naples, 1892. To United States, 1910. Studied at Cooper 
Union; National Academy of Design; Beaux-Arts Institute, all 
in New York. To Paris, 1931. Executed commissions for Post 
Office Department, Washington, D. C. ; St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
New York; New York Housing Authority. Teaches at Columbia 
University. Lives in New York City. 

252. BIANCA NO. 2. 1951, Bronze, H. 9". 
Signed on bottom of foot, Maldarelli. 


Page 168 

Born in Bergamo, 1908. At age of 11 worked with a carver and 
gilder, later as a stucco worker. Self-taught as an artist except 
for some sculpture classes at Accademia Cicognini, Verona. 1930 
to Milan, where he now lives. First one-man exhibition, Galleria 
del Milione, Milan, 1932. Taught at Accademia Albertina, Turin, 
1941 and Accademia Brera, Milan, 1943-54. Commissioned for 
bronze door for St. Peter's, Rome, 1950; central portal for Salz- 
burg Cathedral. Represented in Venice Biennale, 1948 (sculpture 
prize), 1956. 


Bronze relief, 61 x .38'L'", unique. Page 133 

Signed at bottom, Manzu. Foundry mark, Fonderia M.4F Milano. 

2.54. THE DEPOSITION, c. 1950. Bronze bas-relief, 13% x 9'^", 
.Signed on hack and foundry mark 

Fonderia MAF Milano/MANZV. 

2.55. THE EXECUTION. 1950. Bronze bas-relief, 13 x 8Vi". 
.Signed on hack and foundry mark 

Fonderia MAF Milano/ MAN/.V. 

256. STANDING CARDINAL. 1954. Bronze, H, 66'.". Page 131 
Signed on rear at bottom, Manzu. 

Foundry mark, Fonderia M.4F .Milano. 

257, HEAD OF A WOMAN, 19.54. Bronze, H, 19". 
Signed anil marked, Fonderia MAF Milano/.MANXU. 

2,58. DANCER. 1954. Bronze, H. 25'...". Page 128 

Signed and rnarki'il, Fonderia MAF Milano/MANZV. 

259. (;IKL IN (HAIR. 1955. B.onze. Il.44-'i". Page 129 

Signed on rear of chair, Manzu. 
Foundry mark on rear of cliair, Fonderia MAF .Milano. 

260. SEATED CARDINAL. 1955. Bronze, H. 35%". 
Signed and foundry mark on rear at bottom, 
Fonderia MAF Milano/MANZV. 

261. DANCER WITH SKIRT. 1956. Bronze, H. 80" 
Signed and foundry mark on rear at bottom, 
Fonderia MAF .Milano/MANZU. 

Page 130 

262. BUST OF INGE NO, 2, 1956. Bronze, H. 24". 

Signed and foundry mark, Fonderia MAF Milano/MANZU. 

1957, Bronze bas-relief, 36% x 18Vo". 

1957. Bronze bas-relief, 25% x 13%". 

265. ST, NOTBURGA. 1957. Bronze bas-relief, 13% x 13". 

266. ST. MARTIN I. 1958. Bronze bas-relief, 8'4 x 8'4". 

Bronze bas-relief, 21% x 19%". 

Bronze bas-relief, 13 x 12%". Page 132 

269. SITTING HEN. 1958. Bronze bas-relief, lO'i x 1014". 

270. DOVE II. 1958. Bronze bas-relief, 11 x 10%". 

271. DUCK. 1958. Bronze bas-relief, 13% x 15%". 

272. DOLPHIN. 1958. Bronze bas-relief, 10% x 10%". 

273. .ST. SEVERIN. 1958. Bronze bas-relief, 211,4 x 28%". Page 132 


Born in Berlin, 1889. 1907 studied painting with Richard Scheibe. 
Taught at Kunstgewerbeschule, Berlin, 1918; at Bauhaus, Wei- 
mar, 1920-25; at Kunstgewerbeschule, Halle, 1925-3.3. Forbidden 
to exhibit by Nazis. 1946-50 taught at Landeskunstschule. Ham- 
burg. Represented in Venice Biennale, 1954; /. and //. Docu- 
menla, Kassel, 1955, 1959. Has lived in Cologne since 1950. 

274. OLD AM) YUl Nt; WOMAN. 1945. Bronze, II. 23". 
Monogranuned on front, top of base. 
Foundry mark on rim of base. Muriendorf Foundry II. 

275. GIRL WITH BRAIDS. 1950. Bronze, H. 45". 
.Signed and marked on top of base. No. 2. 

276. SEATED GIRL. 1953. Bronze. H. 2.S". 

277. CROl'ClllNC; ARAB. 19,56. Bronze. II. 4^',". 
Monogranuned on rear. 

Foundry mark at Imllnni of base. Mariendori and 
R. H. liarlh. BIN. 

Page 52 
Page 52 




Born in Pistoia, 1901. Studied painting and sculpture at Accade- 
mia di Belle Arti, Florence. 1928-29 studied sculpture in Paris. 
Taught at art school of Villa Reale, Monza. 1929-40. 1940 ap- 
pointed professor of sculpture, Accademia di Brera, Milan. Lived 
in Ticino, Switzerland, 1942-46. Since 1946 has lived in Milan and 
Forte dei Marmi. Has traveled to United States and throughout 
Europe, with several long visits to Paris. Included in Venice 
Biennale, 1950, 1952 (sculpture prize), 1954; Brussels World's 
Fair, 1958; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959. 

278. SUSANNA. 1943. Bronze, H. 28%". Page 134 
Signed near foot, MM. 

279. HORSE AND RIDER. 1950-53. Bronze, H, 81". Page 137 
Signed on back at top of base, MM. 

280. BULL. 1953. Bronze, H. 33". Page 135 
Signed on back at top of base, MM. 

281. CURT VALENTIN. 1953. Bronze. H. 91/2". Page 135 
Signed on back of neck at bottom, MM. 

282. DANCER. 1954. Bronze, H. 6SV2". 1/3. Page 136 
Signed on back of base at center, MM. 

283. STANDING NUDE. Bronze, H. 16%". 

284. WOMAN SEATED, ARMS BEHIND BACK. Bronze, H. 25%". 


Born in Paris, of Venezuelan parentage, 1930. Studied at ficole 
des Beaux-Arts, Paris. To New York, 1950; studied with Hans 
Hofraann and at Art Students League. Group exhibitions: An- 
nuals, Stable Gallery, New York, 1954-57; Festival of Two 
Worlds, Spoleto, 1958; Humor in Art, Dallas Museum of Con- 
temporary Art, 1958; Pittsburgh International, 1958; Pan .Amer- 
ican, An, Art Institute of Chicago, 1959; The Art of Assemblage, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961, One-man shows: 
Leo Castelli Gallery, New York, 1958; Stable Gallery, New 
York, 1962. She lives in New York City, 

285. UNTITLED. 1960. Bronze, H. 12". Page 195 


Born in Fontana Liri, near Rome, 1910. First one-man exhibi- 
tion, Genoa, 1931. Many exhibitions since then. Among recent 
group shows: Venice Biennale, 1950, 1952, 1954, 1958 (first prize 
for sculpture) ; Pittsburgh International, 1958, 1961; //. Docu- 
menta, Kassel, 1959. Teaches at Accademia di Belle Arti, 
Bologna. Lives in Turin. 

286. HEAD. 1957. Bronze, H. 21%". 
Signed on reverse, Mastroianni. 

Page 138 

Born in Aachen, Germany, 1887. Studied painting and graphics, 
Berlin Academy, with Kampf and Corinth, 1907-14. Self-taught 
as a sculptor. 1911-12 contact with Blaue Reiter Group. Munich. 
Taught at Diisseldorf Academy, 1932. Recent exhibitions include: 
Pittsburgh International. 19.58; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959. 
Lives in Biiderich, Germany. 

Bronze, H. 3%". edition of 12. Monogrammed on rear. 

288. RAM'S HEAD. Bronze, H. 4", edition of 12. 
Monogrammed at bottom. 


Born in Le Cateau, 1869. 1891 studied in Paris with Bouguereau 
and Moreau. First sculpture, 1899. Studied sculpture briefly with 
Bourdelle at La Grande Chauniiere, 1900. Exhibited at Salon des 
Independants from 1901, at Salon d'Automne from 1903. One- 
man show, Ambroise Vollard's, 1904. Leader of the Fauves. 1908 
exhibited in New York, Moscow and Berlin. Showed bronzes and 
terra cottas at Salon d'Automne, 1908. Returned to sculpture 
often during subsequent career. 1910 to Spain; 1911 to Moscow; 
1911-13 trips to Morocco. Designed Vence chapel, completed in 
1951. Died in Nice, 1954. 

289. BILSTOFAWOMAN. 1900. Bronze, H. 241/2". Page 75 

.Signed on back of base, HM. 

290. SLAVE. 1900-03. Bronze, H. 36%". Pages 76, 77 
Signed on back of base, HM 7/10. 

291. DECORATIVE FIGURE. 1903. Bronze, H. 29". Pages 78, 79 
Signed on side, HM 1903. 

Foundry mark on rim of base, rear, Valsuani. 

Bronze, H. 111/2". 

Signed, HM 3/10. 
Foundry mark, Valsuani. 

Bronze, H. 5%". 

Signed on rear, HM. 

Foundry mark on edge, Valsuani. Edition of 10. 

294. MARGUERITE. 1906. Bronze, H. 51/2". 
Signed on back, HM 6. 

Foundry mark on side, Valsuani. 

295. THE DANCE. 1906. Bronze, H. 16%". 
Signed on back of base, HM 1/10. 
Foundry mark on back of base, Valsuani. 

296. LARGE SEATED NUDE. 1907. Bronze, H. 16yo". Page 81 
Signed on back, HM 10/10. 

Foundry mark on back, Valsuani. 


297. TWO NEGRESSES. 1909. Bronze, H. I8V2". Page 80 
Signed on back, Henri Matisse 1/10. 

Foundry mark on back, A. Bingen & Eustenoble, Paris. 

298. RECLININGNUDE.c. 1919. Terra cotta.L. 19". Page 82 
Marked on rear of base, Henri Matisse 1/5. 

299. RECLINING NUDE NO. 2. c. 1929. Bronze, H. 77s". Page 82 
Signed and marked behind supporting elbow, HM 7/10. 

300. VENUS IN A SHELL. 1931. Bronze, H. 13". Page 81 
Signed on back of base at top, HM 3/10. 

Foundry mark on back of base, Valsuani. 

MATTA (Roberto Matta Echaurren) 

Born in Santiago, Chile, 1912. 1933 graduated from School of 
Architecture, Santiago. Studied architecture for three years in Le 
Corbusier's office, Paris. 1937 began painting; joined Surrealist 
group, Paris. To United States, 1939; 1941 visited Mexico, then 
worked in Madrid, Paris, New York and Rome. Recent exhibi- 
tions include: //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959; Art Since 1950, 
Seattle World's Fair, 1962. Lives in Paris. 

301. SCULPTURE. 1958. Bronze and iron. H. 28". 
Signed on base, MATTA 40. 
Foundry mark at bottom, Susse Fondeur Paris. 


Page 119 

Born in Norwich, England, 1915. Studied at Norwich School of 
Art; Royal College of Art, London. After service in RAF during 
war, resumed sculpture, working often as assistant to Moore. 
Exhibitions include: Venice Biennale, 1952; Sao Paulo Bienal, 
1957; Pittsburgh International, 19.58, 1961. Lives in London. 

302. BUMPUS BIRD HEAD. 19.59. Bronze, H. 41Vo". 

303. ARMED BUST. 1961. Bronze, II. 19". 

joA>' >aino 

Born in Barcelona, 1893. 1919 to Paris. 1922 exhibited in inter- 
national Dada exhibition, Paris; 1925 participated in first Sur- 
realist group exhibition, Paris. Executed decor for DiaghUev 
Ballet, 1925. Sculptures of combined objects and fantastic forms, 
1930"s. Murals: 1937 Paris Exposition; Terrace Plaza Hotel, 
Cincinnati, 1947; Graduate Center, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1950-51. Continued to execute sculpture in 1940's 
and 1950's. Works frequently in ceramic in collaboration with 
Artigas. Received Guggenheim International Award, 1953. Lives 
in Palma, Mallorca. 

305. PERSONAGE. 1953. Black marble, H. 38". Page 120 
Signed on rim of base, MIRO. 

306. PERSONAGE. 1953. Bronze, H. 12y2". 
Signed inside base, Miro 1/8. 
Foundry mark, V. Gimeno Fundit, Barna. 


Born in Leghorn, Italy, 1884. Studied painting in Italy. 1906 to 
Paris. Exhibited at Salon des Independants, 1908, 1910. 1911; 
Salon d'Automne, 1912. Friendship with Brancusi, who encour- 
aged him to begin sculpture. 1910-14 concentrated almost ex- 
clusively on sculpture. 1914-15 met Leopold Zborowski who be- 
came his friend and dealer and introduced him to dealer Paul 
GuUlaume. First one-man exhibition, Galerie Berthe Weill, Paris, 
1917. 1918 to south of France. 1919 exhibited at Salon d'Automne 
and Hill Gallery. London. Died in Paris, 1920. 

Page 157 

307. HEAD. c. 1910. Stone, H. 19%". 

308. HEAD. c. 1917, cast 1950. Bronze, H. 19%". 
Foundry mark on back of neck, Ale.xis Rudier. 
Edition of 3. 


Page 83 

MI«'IA>«» >ll.'%4;i 7.ZI 

Born in Bologna, 1911. Studied at Accadcmia di Belle .'\rti, 
Bologna. First exhibition, Florence, 1931. Since then has ex- 
hibited widely in Europe and United States. Represented in 
Venice Biennale, 1948. 1950 (sculpture prize), 1952, 1954, 1960 
(special room) ; S."io i*aulo Bienal. 1951; The New Decade, Tlie 
Museum of Modern Art. New York. 1955; //. Dorumenla. Kassel, 
1959. First one-nuin show in New York. ( ialheriin- \i\iarin Gal- 
lery, 1956. Received third prize. Unknown Political Prisoner 
Competition, London, 1953. Teaches at Accadcmia di Brera, 
Milan, where he lives. 

:«M. THE SHADOWS. 1956-57 
Signed. MINGUZZI. 

Bronze. II. 70". 

Page 139 

Born in Castleford, Yorkshire, 1898. Studied at Leeds School of 
Art. 1919: received Royal Exhibition Scholarship in Sculpture, 
1921, and attended Royal College of .Vrl, London. 1925 received 
Royal College of Art Travelling Scholarship; visited Paris. Rome, 
Florence, Ravenna. First one-man exhibition, Warren Gallery, 
London, 1928. First public conmiission, relief for facade of Lon- 
don Underground Railway Headquarters. 1928. Commissioned by 
War /Vrtisls Advisory Conunillee to make drawings of under- 
ground shelters, 1940, and coal mine drawings. 1941. 1946 lirst 
visit to United Stales on occasion of retrospective. The .Museum 
of Modern Art. New York. Prizes include \ cnice Biennale. Inter- 
national .Sculpture Prize. 19'lfl; Sao Paulo Bienal. International 
Prize for Sculpture, 1953; International .\rl Exhibition, Tokyo. 
Foreign Ministers Prize, 1959. Retrospectives throughout Europe 
and United Stales. Most recent major exhibition in United Slates, 
M. Knoedhr and Co.. New York. 1962. Lives in Hertfordshire. 
















MOTHER AND CHILD. 1931. Alabaster, H. 13". Page 144 

COMPOSITION. 1934. Bronze, L. le'/s". 
Signed on reverse, Moore 1/9. 

CARVING. 1935. Cumberland alabaster, H. 11%". 

FAMILY GROUP. 1943. Bronze, H. 6". 

FAMILY GROUP. 1945. Bronze, H. 17%". Page 145 

ROCKING CHAIR NO. 2. 1950. Bronze, H. 11". 
Foundry mark, lahuani. Edition ol 6. 

Bronze. H. 13Vo". Signed on rear at bottom. MOORE. Edition of 8. 

STANDING FIGURE NO. 1. 1952. Bronze, H. 9%". 
Signed back of base, MOORE. 

LEAF FIGURE NO. 1. 1952. Bronze, H. 19". 

LEAF FIGURE NO. 2. 1952. Bronze, H. 18%". 


Page 14S 

Bronze, H. 41". Foundry mark top of base, Susse Fondeur Paris. 

KING AND QUEEN. 1952-53. Bronze, H. 641/2". 
Edition of 5. 

Bronze, L. 24". Edition of 7. 

Bronze, L. 8Vi". Edition of 9. 

WOMAN ON STEPS, c. 1953? Bronze. H. 6V2". 

WARRIOR'S HEAD. 1953. Bronze, H. 10". 

MOTHER AND CHILD. 1953. Bronze, H. 20". 

SEATED WOMAN ON BENCH. 1953. Bronze, H. 8%". 

RECLINING FIGURE IV. 1954. Bronze, L. 24". 

UPRIGHT MOTIF NO. 3. 1955. Bronze, H. 10". 
Edition of 9. 

GLENKILN CROSS. 1955-56. Bronze, H. 132". Page 149 

Edition of 6. 

FALLING WARRIOR. 1956-57. Page 147 

Bronze, L. 52". Edition of 10. 

SEATED WOMAN. 1956-57. Bronze, H. 57". Page 150 

Edition of 6. 

Bronze, H. 22". Edition of 12. 

Bronze, H. 91/2". 

Bronze, L. 41", 4/10. 

335. HELMET HEAD NO. 3. 1960. Bronze, H. 11 V2", 4/10. Page 145 


Born in Ziirich, 1920. Studied with Germaine Ricbier, 1939-44. 
1947 to Italy; 1950 settled in Paris. First one-man show, Paris, 
1954. Exhibitions include: Venice Biennale, 19.56, 1960; Sao 
Paulo Bienal, 1957; Pittsburgh International, 1958, 1961; //. 
Documenta, Kassel, 1959. Lives in Villiers-Ie-Bel, France. 

336. RITTERSPORN. 1958. Welded iron. H. 46Vo". 


Page 122 

Born in Warsaw, 1882. Briefly attended Warsaw Academy; stud- 
ied in Kracow. To Munich, where he studied Greek sculpture and 
18th and 19th century dolls at the Glyptothek and Bayerisches 
National Museum. To Paris, ca. 1900. Worked briefly at Atelier 
Colarossi, ca. 1904. First one-man exhibition Galerie Druet, 1909. 
Represented in Armory Show, New York, 1913. To United States, 
1914. Lived in New York City. First one-man show in New York, 
Stieglitz" Gallery 291, 1915. 1919 settled in Riverdale. After 
ca. 1930 withdrew almost entirely from exhibitions. Died in 1946. 
Memorial exhibition, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 

337. FIGURE STUDY. 1913. Gilded bronze, H. 12%". 

338. HORSE, c. 1914. Bronze, H. 12%". Page 165 

339. HOST. c. 1917. Painted cherry wood. H. 29". 

340. THE HOSTESS. 1918. Painted cherry wood. H. 3211.". Page 165 

341. CIRCUS PERFORMER, c. 1919. Painted cherry wood, H. 31%". 

342. ORCHESTRA CONDUCTOR, c. 1919. Wood, H. 37". 

343. HEAD OF BAUDELAIRE, c. 1936. 
Marble, H. 17". 


Page 164 

Born in New York, 1897. Worked with Manship and Lachaise. 
First exhibition, 1922. Received Guggenheim Fellowship, 1931. 
One-man exhibitions include: Downtown Gallery, New York, 
1930, 1933, 1935; Egan Gallery, New York, 1949, 1950, 1952, 
1962. Awarded sculpture prize, Sao Paulo Bienal, 1961. Lives in 
Stamford, Connecticut. 

344. ECSTASY. 1947. Bronze, H. 12". 
Signed on reverse of head, Nakian. 

Page 174 


345. NYMPH. 19.59-60. Terra cotta. 10 x ll'/l.". 

346. NYMPH. 19.59-60. Grey terra cotla, 10% x 9%". 

347. NYMPH AND CUPID. 1959-60. 
Terra cotta, WVi x 13%". 

348. NY.MPH. 1959-60. White terra cotta, 9'X; x 9'X:". 

349. NYMPH AND CUPID. 19.59-60. Terra cotta, 11 x 9". 

350. NYMPH AND CUPID. 1959-60. 
Black terra cotta, 10 x 12". 

351. EUROPA SERIES. 1960. Bronze, H. 12". 
.Signed on reverse, Nakian. 

Foundry mark, Roman Bronze Works, Inc., N. Y. 

Page 174 

Guggenheim Fellowship, worked with Brancusi. Associated with 
Calder and Giacometti. 1929-31 studied drawing in Peking and 
worked as potter in Kyoto. First one-man exhibition, Eugene 
Schoen Gallery, New York, 1929. Public commissions include re- 
lief for Associated Press Building, Rockefeller Center, New 
York, 1938; sculpture for gardens of UNESCO Building, Paris, 
1958. Has designed decor for Martha Graham dance company, 
furniture and lamps. Since 1952 has lived near Tokyo and in 
New York. 

354. IRON WASH. 1957. Iron, H. 9". 

Only cast to date ; three others due. 

3.55. LEKYTHOS, 1958. Greek marble, H. 13" 

Page 180 

Page 180 


Born in Kiev, Russia, 1900. To United States, 1905. 1929-30 stud- 
ied at Art .Students League, New York, with Kenneth Hayes 
Miller; 1931 with Hans Hofmann, Munich. Archaeological stud- 
ies in Mexico and Central America. First one-man show, Nieren- 
dorf Gallery, New York, 1940. Recent exhibitions include 16 
Americans, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1959; The 
Art of Assemblage, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 
1961 ; Pittsburgh International, 1961. Lives in New York City. 

Born in Tokyo, 1930. Attended art school, Tokyo, 1950-54, 1957 
entered National Chiba I'niversity. To United States. 1958. Par- 
ticipated in group exhibitions at Graham Gallery, New York, 
1959; Houston Museum of Fine Arts, 1959. First one-man exhibi- 
tion at Radich Gallery, New York, 1962. 

356. TOKOBASHIRA. 1962. Oak, H. 30". 
Signed on reverse. To. 

Page 195 

3,52. MOUNTAIN WOMAN. 1947. 
Terra cotta, H. 9". 


Page 203 

Born in Orani, .Sardinia, 1911. Worked as a mason. Graduated 
from Istiluto Superior! d'Arte, .Monza, Milan. 1936-38 Art Di- 
rector, Olivetti Corporation. Executed many murals, including 
some for Italian Pavillion, Paris World's Fair, 1937. To United 
States, 1939. Director, Design Workshop, Harvard University 
Graduate School of Design, 1954-57. Numerous exhibitions, in- 
cluding retrospective, Columbia University School of Architec- 
ture, New York, 1962. Lives in New York City. 


Born in Oakland, California, 1928. Studied at Mills College, 
Oakland, with Max Beckmann; received MFA from California 
College of Arts and Crafts, 1952. Taught at California School of 
Fine Arts, San Francisco; presently guest instructor, L'niversity 
of Illinois, Urbana. Awards include Tiffany Award for Graphic 
Arts. Among group exhibitions: New Images of .Man. The Mu- 
seum of Modern Art, New York, 1959; I. Paris Biennale. 19.59. 
One-man shows: Alan Gallery, New York, 19,58, 1960; Krannert 
Art Museum, Urbana, 1961; Walker .'\rl Center, .Minneapolis, 
1961. Lives in Piedmont, California. 


Bronze, H. 14", unique. Signed at lop, Oliveira (>0. 

Page 201 

353. THE MOTHER. 1953. 

Sand and plaster (relii'f I, 20 x 16'.i". 


Page 205 

Horn in l.os Angeles. 1901, of .lapaoesc ami .Atneriean parentage. 
Lived in .japan as a child. Apprenticed to a eabiiiel-niakrr. Ke- 
turried to United Stales, 1918. Took pre-medieal course, Columliia 
University, 1923; sUidii'd briefly ul Leonardo da Vinci .\rt .School 
and KasI Sid,. An School, New York. 1921. 1927-28 in Paris on 

KI»i'AIII»«» l>AOI.«»7.ZI 

Born in Kclinlnirgh, Scolland. l'»21. Sluilieil al Kdinlnirgli ("ol- 
lege of .Art and .^ladr .Scluxtl. London. 1947-50 worked in Paris. 
First one-ouin exhibition, .Mayor Gallery, London, 1947, Re- 
ceived Inlernational .'\rl Council Commission for Festival of 
Britain, 1951: British Critic's Prize, 1953. Exhibitions include 
Venice Biennale, 1952, 1954, I960. //. Documenia, Kasscl, 1959. 
Most recent oni'-man show in New York, Betty Parsons Callen', 
1%2. Lives in London. 


358. STANDING FIGURE. 1958. Bronze. H. 26". 
Signed on front, Eiluarilo Paolozzi, London. 58. 

359. LARGE FROG. 1958. Bronze, H. 36". Page 156 
Signed on base, Eduardo Paolozzi, London, 58.6.7. 

Pnil.lP PAVIA 

Born in Connecticut, 1912. Studied at Stone Carving School, 
Greenwich, Connecticut; Beaux- Arts School, New York, 1930; 
Art Students League, New York, 1931-33. Traveled extensively 
in Europe, 1933-37. A founder of The Club, New York, 1948. 
Was founder and editor of magazine It Is. Exhibits at Kootz 
Gallery, New York. Included in Pittsburgh International, 1961. 
Lives in New York City. 

360. HORSETAIL. 1961. Bronze, H. 6'6" 


Page 190 

Born in Buenos Aires, 1918. To Fiance on French government 
grant, 1948. Exhibitions include: Salon de Mai, Paris, 1952; 
Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, Paris, 1952-57; Park Middelheim. 
Antwerp, 1953, 1955; Pittsburgh International. 1958; //. Docu- 
menta, Kassel, 1959. One-man show in New York, Otto Gerson 
Gallery, 1960. Lives in Paris. 

361. THE SPARKLER. 1957. Page 73 

Bronze and stone, H. MV-i" , base 20". 
Signed at bottom. Penal ba 1/4. 
Foundry mark along bottom edge, cassef ref Paris. 


Born in Orel, Russia, 1886. Brother of Naum Gabo. Studied at 
Kiev Art Academy, 1902-09; at St. Petersburg Art Academy, 
1910. Visited Paris, 1911; settled in Paris, 1913. Friendship with 
Modigliani and Archipenko. 1914-17 Oslo. 1917 appointed pro- 
fessor at Moscow Art Academy where he taught with Gabo, 
Tatlin and Malevitch. Wrote with Gabo Realist Manifesto, state- 
ment of Constructivist theories, 1920. To Berlin, 1923. Late 1923 
settled in Paris again. 1931 founding member of .ibstraction- 
Creation group. 1946 a founder of Realites Nouvelles group. 
Extensive exhibitions include Kunsthalle, Basel. 1934; The Mu- 
seum of Modern Art, New York, 1948 (with Gabo I ; retrospec- 
tive, Musee d'Art Moderne, Paris, 1957; //. Dociimenta, Kassel, 
1959. Died in Paris, 1962. 

362. CONSTRUCTION IN SPIRAL. 1943. Bronze, H. 21%". Page 95 
Signed on back of base, Pevsner/No. 1/1943. 
Foundry mark on back of base, Susse. 


Born in Malaga, Spain. 1881. To Barcelona. 1895. Carved, 
modeled and constructed sculpture occasionally during early 
career. 1900-01 trips to Madrid and Paris. 1904 settled in Paris. 
1907 met Braque with whom he developed cubism: executed 
cubist sculpture concurrently with paintings. Turned again to 
sculpture, 1929-34, working in many directions, notably metal 
constructions with technical assistance from Gonzalez. Set up 
sculpture studio at Boisgeloup, 1933; began working in a larger 
scale. Guernica, 1937. Lived in Royan. near Bordeaux. 1939-40. 
Since 40's has concerned himself often with sculpture, execut- 
ing human figures and animals in a variety of styles and media. 
Has lived in the south of France since 1946. Recent retrospec- 
tives: Paris, 1955; New York, 1959; London, 1960. 

363. HEAD OF A JESTER. 1905. Bronze, H. 16%". Page 84 
Signed near bottom, Picasso. 

364. HEAD OF A MAN. c. 1905. Bronze, H. 6%". 
Signed on side at bottom. Picasso. 

365. HEAD. 1905. Bronze, H. 14%", 5/9. Page 84 
Signed. Picasso, bottom. 

Foundry mark, Valsuani. 

366. HEAD OF A WOMAN. 1906. Bronze, H. W-i". 
Signed on back of head, Picasso. 

367. HEAD OF A WOMAN. 1908. Bronze, H. 7%", 5/6. 

Bronze. H. 16", 1/9. Pages 57, 85 
Foundry mark, Valsuani. 

369. HEAD OF A WOMAN. 1951. Bronze, H. 211/2". Page 86 

370. LITTLE OWL. 1952. Painted bronze, H. 10%". Page 87 
Foundry mark at bottom. Valsuani. 

371. FAWN. 1955. Gilded bronze plaque, 10 x 10". Page 87 
Signed on front, Picasso 2/5, dated 28.6.55. 


Born in Paris, 1928. Son of Swiss painter Marcel Poncet, grand- 
son of Maurice Denis. Worked in father's stained glass and 
mosaic workshop. 1942 worked with Richier, Ziirich; 1942-45 
studied at ficole des Beaux-Arts, Lausanne. To Paris, 1947. 1952- 
55 worked with Arp. From 1952 exhibited at Salon de la Jeune 
Sculpture, Salon de Mai, Salon des Realites Nouvelles, Paris. 
Participated in Venice Biennale, 1956. One-man show, Galerie 
Iris Clert, Paris, 1959. Lives in St. Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. 

372. ARBRALU (FORMECLATl. 1961. 
Bronze. H. 17%", 1/5. 

Page 109 



Born in Czernowitz, Russian Ukraine (then part of Austrian Em- 
pire), 1897. To Prague, 1930. Studied sculpture and graphics at 
Academy of Fine Arts, Prague. 1935 first sculpture exhibition. 
Manes Gallery, Prague. To France, 1939. To Cuba, 1941. To 
New York, 1943. Recent one-man exhibitions include: World 
House Galleries, New York, 1959; retrospective, Whitney Mu- 
seum of American Art, New York, 1961. Lives in New York City. 

373. SMALL CELLO PLAYER. 19.55. Bronze, H. 15%", 6/6. 

374. HEAD OF GOOD SAMARITAN. 1955. Page 175 
Bronze, H. 10", 2/3. Signed on inside of base, Reder 2 II 1955. 

ored backgrounds painted by Hartung and \'ieira da Silva. Ex- 
hibitions include .Sao Paulo Bienal, 1951 (sculpture prize) ; 
Venice Biennale, 1952, 1954; retrospective, .\Iusee d'Art Moderne, 
Paris, 1956; Brussels World's Fair, 1958. Illustrated Rimbaud's 
Les Illuminations; de Solier's Centre Terre ; Pliny's Natural 
History. Died in Montpellier, 1959. 

1945. Bronze, H. 16Vi". Page 116 
Signed on back of base at top, G. Richier. 

Foundry mark on back of base, Valsuani. 

381. LEAF. 1948. Bronze, H. 54'/-". Pages 116, 117 
Signed, G. Richier. 

Foundry mark, Susse Fondeiir. 


Born in Limoges, 1841 ; family moved to Paris, 1845. Apprenticed 
to a porcelain painter, later studied with Gleyre at ficole des 
Beaux- Arts, Paris. Accepted in .Salon, 1867, after two rejections. 
Met Manet, 1867. 1874 active in organization of Impressionist 
group and exhibited in their first exhibition. 1880 broke away 
from the group. 1904 retrospective at Salon d'Automne. First 
sculpture, 1907. Later more ambitious work, executed by sculptor- 
assistant Guino, c. 1913-18. Experimented with colored terra 
cotta. Died in Cagnes, 1919. 

37.5. SMALLSTANDING VENUS. 1913. Page 44 

Bronze, with base, H. SS'/^". Signed on base of figure, Renoir. 

376. PORTRAIT OF MME. RENOIR, c. 1915. 
Bronze, 11.23'//'. 

377. HEAD OF A WOMAN, c. 1918. Bronze, H. 14" 
Signed on back of neck, Renoir. 

Foundry mark on hair, Alexis Riidier. 

378. PIPE PLAYER. 1918. Bronze relief, 24 x 17'-' 
Signed at bottom, Renoir. 

Foundry mark al l)ollom, Vahiinni, ^/20. 

Page 44 

Page 44 

332. LARGE WARRIOR. 1953. Bronze, H. IS'-;". 
Signed on back, G. Richier. 
Foundry mark on back, Valsuani. 

383. MAN OF THE NIGHT. 1953-54. Bronze, H. 11" 
Foundry mark on back, Valsuani. 

384. GRAIN. 1955. Bronze, H. 57". 
Signed on back of base, G. Richier. 
Foundry mark on back of base, Valsuani. 


Born in New York, 1923. Studied al Julliard School of Music, 
New York; New York University; with Hans Hofniann, New 
York. First one-man exhibition, Jane Street Gallen, New York, 
1949. Numerous shows of both painting and sculpture since then. 
One-man exhibitions of sculpture: Stable Gallery, New York, 
1954; Martha Jackson Gallery, New York, 1960. Important group 
shows include; S.'io Paulo Bienal. 1957: Pittsburgh International. 
19,58, 1961. Illustrated Second .lieniie. poems by Frank O'Hara, 
1960. Lives in Southampton, New York. 

385. HEAD. 19.58. Steel, II. 18-M 

Page 201 

,379. GIRL WITH TAMBOURINE NO. 1. 1918. 
Bronze rfliel, 23 X 17"i". 
Signetl at lower i'lonl. Rvnoir. 
Foundry mark on side. \ itlsuani. 1/20. 


liorn in (Iruns, France. 1904. 1922-25 attended fieole des Beaux- 
Arts, iMonlpcllier. 1925-29 in Paris, pui)il and ussisliinl of lioia- 
delle; exhibited at Salon d'Automne and Tuilerii's. 1934 first 
one-man exhibition, Gulerie Max Kaganovitch, Paris. 1936 re- 
ceived Blumenthal Prize for Sculpture. Switzerland and south of 
France, 1939-15. Settled in Paris. Executed sculpture with col- 

iir«;4» iioiii's 

Born in Cleveland, 1885. Studied at Cleveland School of .\rt; 
.National Academy of Design, New York; ■■Veadcmie de la Grande 
Chaumiere, Paris, with Bourilelle. .\etive first as a painter. Has 
exhibited in .\nnuals. \\ hilney .Museum of American .\rl. New 
York, since 1933. Ketrospeclive, Whitney Museum of .\nierican 
Art. 1960. lias taught at Hunter College. New York; Boston Mu- 
seum School of .\rl. Li\»'s in Ne\s ^ Hrk (!ily. 

.336. SONG. 1934. liron/, . II. 60". 
Signed on bottom, Robus. 
Foundry mark. Roman lirouzc Works, Inc.. t/l. 

Page 172 


Born in Paris, 1840. Began studying, 1854 at La Petite ficole 
under Boisbaudran; later under Barye. Rejected from ficole des 
Beaux-Arts. Worked in studio of Carriere-Belleuse more than ten 
years, executing architectural ornament; then as sculptor's as- 
sistant. Brussels, 1871-76, where he executed architectural sculp- 
ture. Visited Italy to study Michelangelo and Germany to see 
Gothic cathedrals. Returned to Paris, exhibited in Salon, 1877. 
1880 received first public commission; Gates of Hell, portal for 
Musee des Arts Decoratifs. Among his most important monu- 
ments; The Burghers of Calais, which met with widespread 
criticism ; Balzac, which was refused by the Societe des Gens de 
Lettres. Joint exhibition with Monet, 1889. Retrospective, Paris 
Exposition, 1900. Died in Meudon, 1917. 

387. MAN WITH BROKEN NOSE, MASK. 1864. Page 17 
Bronze, H. 12M:". Signed at bottom, A. Rodin. 

Foundry mark on side, Alexis Rudier Fondeur, Paris. 

388. HEAD OF ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. 1879. Bronze, H. lOV-". 
Signed at front, A. Rodin. 

Foundry mark at front, Alexis Rudier Fondeur, Paris. 

389. HEAD OF SORROW. 1882. Bronze, H. 91/4". 
Signed at bottom. .4. Rodin. 

Foundry mark on back, Georges Rudier. 

390. CROUCHING WOMAN. 1882. Bronze. H. 12'1.". Page 22 
Signed on side, A. Rodin. 

Foundry mark, Alexis Rudier. 

Pages 19, 20, 21 

391. THE BURGHERS OF CALAIS. 1884-88. 
Bronze, 85 x 981/8 x 78". 
Signed top of base, A. Rodin. 
Foundry mark edge of base, Alexis Rudier. 

392. IRIS, MESSENGER OF THE GODS. 1890-91. Page 23 
Signed at front at bottom, Rodin. 

Initials RBJF on bottom at back. 

393. BUST OF BALZAC. 1893-95. Bronze, H. 18%". Page 25 
Signed, A. Rodin. 

Foundry mark on rear, .4lexis Rudier fondeur, Paris. 

394. HEAD OF BALZAC. 1893-95. Bronze, H. 7%". 
Cast by A. Rudier, No. 2. 

395. SPIRIT OF MELANCHOLY. 1898. Bronze, H. 5%". 
Signed at bottom of neck, A. Rodin. 

Foundry mark on back of neck, Alexis Rudier. 

396. HEAD OF BAUDELAIRE. 1898. Bronze, H. 8". Page 24 

397. TORSO. 1909. Bronze, H. 321,1.", 2/10. Page 26 
Signed in front, A. Rodin. 

Marked on base, Musee Rodin 1959. 

398. FEMME AU CRABBE. Bronze, H. 81/3". 
Signed on side, A. Rodin. 

Foundry mark. Rudier, Paris. 

399. STUDY OF NUDE. c. 1909. Bronze, H. 15", 7/12. 
Signed on base, A. Rodin No. 7. 

Cast by the Musee Rodin in 1959. 


Born in Washington, Pennsylvania, 1912. Studied violin. Turned 
to sculpture, worked with Frank Vittor, Pittsburgh. Worked on 
W.P.A. Federal Art Project. Has taught at Pratt Institute and 
Cooper LTnion, New York; Visiting Critic in Sculpture, Yale 
University, 1950, 1961, 1962. Received Brandeis University 
Creative Arts Award, 1960; Frank Logan Medal and Prize for 
Sculpture, Art Institute of Chicago, 1962. Group shows since 
1951. One-man exhibitions: Peridot Gallery, New York, 1954; 
Otto Gerson Gallery, New York, 1959, 1962. Has lived in New 
York City since 1943. 

400. HEAD. 1956. Marble, H. 23%". 

401. HAMADRYAD. 1957-58. Marble, H. 35". Page 181 

402. HEAD. 1960. Bronze. H. 10". 


Born in Turin, 1858. Worked as painter until 1880. Entered Acca- 
demia di Brera, Milan, 1881 ; dismissed, 1883. In Paris, 1884-85 ; 
worked in atelier of Dalou, met Rodin. 1884 exhibited in Milan, 
Paris and Rome. Returned to Paris, 1889, where he spent most 
of his active career. 1900 showed at Paris Exposition; 1904 ex- 
hibited with Rodin, Salon d'Automne, Paris. Works not exten- 
sively exhibited in Italy until 1910. Died in Milan, 1928. 1929 
first retrospective, Salon d'Automne, Paris. 

403. THE JANITOR. 1882. Bronze, H. 14'//'. 

404. CARNE ALTRUI. 1883. Bronze, H. 14%". Page 30 

405. THE DOORKEEPER. 1883. Wax, H. IS'/.". 

406. THE GOLDEN AGE. 1886. Wax, H. 17". 

407. SICK MAN IN HOSPITAL. 1889. Page 31 
Plaster, H. 9". 

408. THE BOOK MAKER. 1894. Bronze, H. 17%:". Page 31 

409. CHILD IN POORHOUSE. 1893. Wax, H. 17%". 




Born in Poznan, Poland, 1907. Family moved to United States, 
settled in Chicago, 1909. .Studied at Chicago Art Institute; Na- 
tional Academy of Design, New York; Columbia University, 
New York. Received traveling fellowship from Art Institute of 
Chicago, 1928. Europe, 1929-31. 1932 settled in New York City, 
where he still lives. Taught at Art Institute of Chicago, 1927-29; 
Design Laboratory, W. P. A. Federal Art Project, New York, 1937- 
39; Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, 1940 — . First one-man 
exhibition (lithographs), Allerton Galleries, Chicago, 1928. Re- 
cent major exhibitions: Retrospective, Whitney Museum of 
American Art, New York, 1956 (circulated to Walker Art 
Center, Minneapolis; Los Angeles County Museum; San Fran- 
cisco Museum of Art; .Seattle Art Museum) ; Venice Biennale, 
1959 (special room) ; Neiv Images oj Man, The Museum of Mod- 
ern Art, New York, 1959. 

410. INVOCATION I. 1947. Steel, H. 29%", unique. 

411. NIGHT BLOOM. 1950. Steel, H. 14'/-", unique. 
Signed on front of base, Theodore Roszak. 

Page 184 

Born in Milan, 1906. To Paris, 1924. Studied at Academic Ran- 
son, Paris. Numerous exhibitions in Europe, including: Venice 
Biennale, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1958; one-man exhibitions in Milan, 
1955; Galerie Rive Droite, Paris, 1956, 1957; Galerie Creuze- 
vault, Paris, 1958 ; Hanover Gallery, London, 1959. Lives in Paris. 

414. TORSO. 1957. Marble. H. 28%". 


Page 109 

Born in Chicago, 1914. Lived in Chicago, Indiana, Florida. 1931 
to San Francisco. Studied at Art Institute of Chicago; California 
School of Fine Arts, San Francisco, 1931-33. 1934-40 executed 
sculpture commissioned by government and private sources in 
San Francisco area. Taught at Sacramento Art Center, 1939; 
Brooklyn College, 1950; University of Mississippi, 1959; Univer- 
sity of Southern Illinois, 1961. Group exhibitions since 1952 in- 
clude shows at Tanager Gallery, New York; annual exhibitions 
at Stable Gallery, New York. One-man exhibition, Graham Gal- 
lery, New York, 1962. Has lived in New York City since 1945. 


Born in Stamford, Connecticut, 1923. Received BFA, 1952, MFS, 
1955 from Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills, Michi- 
gan; studied at Atelier Ossip Zadkine, 1953; Accademia di Belle 
Arti, Florence, 1954. Has taught extensively, most recently at 
Kansas City Art Institute, 19.54-59; Rhode Island School of De- 
sign, Providence. 1959-60; University of California, Berkeley, 
1961-62. Group exhibition^ include: Annual Exhibition of Sculp- 
ture and Drawings, Whitney Museum of American Art, New 
York, 1960, 1961; Pittsburgh Inlernallonal, 1961. Most recent 
one-man cxhibilion, Otto Gerson Gallery, New York, 1961. Lives 
in Berkeley, (California. 

412. UNTITLED. 1961. Iron, H. 72" 


Page 190 

Born in Newark, 1919. Studied at Art Students League, New 
York, 1943-45; ficole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, 19.50. Awards in- 
iludi' l''ulbriglit Graiil fur si iilplurc in France, 1950. Taught at 
l,e Cenire d'Art, Port au Prince, Haiti, 194.6-49; Hofstra College, 
Hempstead, New Y'ork, 1953 to present. First one-man exhibition, 
1946. Recent group exhibitions include The An oj Assemblage, 
The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961; Festival oj Two 
Iforlils. Spoleto, 1962. Lives in New York (^ity. 

415. NIGHT. 1962. Bronze, H. 15" 
Signed at bottom, Slivka 62. 


Page 191 

Born in Decatur, Indiana, 1906. Attended Ohio University, 1924; 
George Washington University, 1926. Worked as a riveter in 
automobile factory. South Bend, Indiana, 1925. 1926 to New 
York; studied painting at Art Students League with John Sloan, 
Jan Matulka. 1926-30. 1931 first free standing painted wood con- 
structions. 1933 first welded iron sculpture. Concentrated pri- 
marily on sculpture after return from trip to London, Paris, 
Greece, Crete, Russia, 1935. 1938 first one-man show. East River 
Gallery, New York. Worked on WP.\ Federal Art Project, 1938. 
1940 moved to Bolton Landing, .New York, where he still lives 
and works. Received Guggenheim Fellowship, 1950. Recent ma- 
jor exhibitions: The Museum of Modern Art. New York. 1956; 
Venice Biennale, 19,58; Siio Paulo Bieiial. 1959: //. Dociimenla. 
Kassel, 1959; French and Co.. New York. 1960: Otio Gerson 
Gallery, New York. 1961. 

416. DE.\T1I BY GAS. 19.39-40. Bronze plaque. 10 x 11' ,". 
Signature on metal plate at bottom, David Smith. 
Dated at bottom, 1939-40. 

413. FOKM AI.ITV. 1960. Chrcnne plaled sleel, H. 51% 

Page 195 

417. .'^TEEl. DU \\\ ING. 1945. Steel, H. 23". 
.'Signed on base. Ihjvitl Smith 1945, 

418. WOMAN IN SUBWAY. 1945. Bronze. H. 10". 

Signed twice on base. David Smith 10(5. 

Page 183 


419. RINGTOOTHED WOMAN. 1945. Bronze, H. 11%". 
Signed on top of base, David Smith 1945. 

420. SENTINEL II. 1956-57. Stainless steel, H. lOVi". Page 182 
Signed top of base, David Smith SEN II 56-57. 

421. ANIMAL WEIGHTS. 1957. Steel, L. 49". 

422. AUBURN QUEEN. 1959. Bronze, H. TSV-t". 

423. LITTLE ALBANY. 1959-60. Painted metal. H. 18". 

424. BOLTON LANDING. 1959-61. Page 183 
Signed in front, David Smith Bolton Landing, 

June 19, 1961 (1959-1961). 


Born in Dundee, Scotland, 1922. Studied at Slade School. Lon- 
don, 1947-48. In Paris, 1948-50. First one-man show, Hanover 
Gallery, London, 1950. Exhibitions include Venice Biennale, 
1952; Sao Paulo Bienal, 1957; one-man exhibitions in London 
at Institute of Contemporary Arts, 1957 and Molton Gallery, 
1960. Since 1951 has taught at Central School of Arts and Crafts, 
London. Lives in London. 

429. HEAD. 1957. Bronze and stone, H. 41%". Page 159 

430. HAMMERHEAD. 1960. Rosewood and stone, H. 58". Page 158 


Born in Philadelphia, 1922. 1929 to Detroit. Studied with Hans 
Hofmann, New York, 1948-49; at Atelier Fernand Leger, Paris, 
1950; at Atelier Ossip Zadkine, 1950-51. First one-man exhibi- 
tion, Hansa Gallery, New York, 1953. Many group and one-man 
shows since then including: Venice Biennale, 1958; Sculpture 
U.S.A., The Museum of Modern Art. New York. 1958 ; 16 Amer- 
icans, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959; Pittsburgh Interna- 
tional, 1961; Sao Paulo Bienal, 1961; The Art oj Assemblage, 
The Museum of Modern Art, 1961. Lives in New York City. 

425. FIGURE. 1955. Iron, H. 75". 


Page 192 

Born in Domegge-Cadore, Italy, 1926. Exhibited at Salon des 
Realites Nouvelles, Paris; Musee d'Art Moderne, Paris, 1960. 

426. THE ATHLETE. 1959. Iron. H. 50'i", unique. 

Page 122 


Born in Berlin, 1900. Studied at Institute of Technology, Berlin. 
First sculpture, 1925; first exhibition, Galerie Gurlitt, Berlin, 
1930. Recent exhibitions include: German Art oj the Twentieth 
Century, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1955 ; Brussels 
World's Fair, 1958 ; //. Documenta, Kassel, 1959. Since 1959 has 
taught at Academy of Fine Arts, Berlin. Lives in Berlin. 

431. STANDARD. 1940. Steel, H. 341^;" 


Page 96 

Born in Lausanne, 1865. Painter, graphic artist, sculptor, writer. 
To Paris, 1882; attended Academic Julian for three years. First 
exhibited at Salon, 1885. Repaired and copied old master paint- 
ings for a living. Contributed to Revue Blanche and met Bon- 
nard. Vuillard, Roussel. Concentrated mainly on woodcuts, 1891- 
97. Naturalized French subject, 1900. Writings include novel 
La Vie Meutriere. Died in Paris, 1925. 

Bronze, H. 13" I including base). 

Page 91 



Born in New York City, 1921. Studied at WPA Art School, New 
York, 1938-40; Columbia University, 1940-43; Atelier Ossip Zad- 
kine, Paris, 1946-50; Academic de la Grande Chaumiere, Paris, 
1950-51 ; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1947-49, 1951-54. 
Teaches at School of Fine and Applied Arts, Boston University. 
One-man exhibitions include: Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 
1953; SwetzofI Gallery, Boston, 1957, 1960. 

427. THE HELMET. 1957. Silver on pewter, H. 9", unique. 
Signed on reverse of head at bottom, H. Tovish '57. 

Born in Byelostok, Russia, 1881. Family emigrated to United 
States, 1891. Studied under Arthur Wesley Dow at Pratt Insti- 
tute, New York, 1900. 1905-08 in Europe, studied at Academie 
Julian, Paris, Taught at Art Students League, New York, 1920- 
21 ; 1935-37. Recipient of many awards including Palmer medal, 
Art Institute of Chicago, 1928; Clark Medal, Corcoran Gallery 
of Art, 1941. Wrote Cubist Poems, 1914; Essays on Art, 1916; 
Primitives, 1927. Retrospective, Newark Museum, 1959; Memo- 
rial Exhibition, American Academy of Arts and Letters, New 
York. 1962. Died in 1961. 

428. HEAD IN SPACE. 1960. Bronze plaque, 26 x 23%" 

Page 197 

433. SPIRAL RHYTHM. 1915. Bronze, H. 24", 1/3. 

Page 175 




Born in Hartford, Connecticut, 1928. Studied at Hartford Art 
School, 1946-48; Rhode Island School of Design, 1948-51 
(B.F.Aj; Yale University, 1953-55. Taught at Cooper Union, 
New York. Prizes include: Prix de Rome, 1951, 1953; Guggen- 
heim Fellowship, 1960. Among recent exhihitions: Young Amer- 
ica, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 1957 ; Pitts- 
burgh International, 1958; Sculpture U.S.A., The Museum of 
Modern Art, New York, 1959; group exhihitions, Borgenicht 
Gallery, New York, 1957-62. Now lives in Rome. 

Born in Youngstown, Ohio, 1929. Studied at Scripps College, 
Claremont, California, 1949-53. Awarded numerous fellowships 
and prizes, including Guggenheim Fellowship for study in South 
East Asia, 1959-60; American Academy of Arts and Letters Grant 
for etching, 1958. Exhibitions include Sao Paulo Bienal, 1955; 
Pittsburgh International, 1955; Aspects de la sculpture ameri- 
caine, Galerie Qaude Bernard, Paris, 1960. Most recent one-man 
show, BoUes Gallery, San Francisco. 1961. .\t present, lives in 

434. THE BRIDE. 1956-57. Walnut, H. 65" 

Page 198 441. EASTER GOAT WITH TWO .STAKES. 1960. 

Bronze, H. 36%", edition of 6. 

Page 200 


Born in Vienna, 1907. Self-taught. First sculpture, 1926. First 
one-man exhibition, Vienna, 1930. 1938-45 Switzerland. 1945 re- 
turned to Vienna to become director of sculpture school at 
Academy of Arts. Extensive exhibitions include: Venice Bien- 
nale, 1932, 1934, 1948, 1950, 1952; Sao Paulo Bienal, 1957; 
Pittsburgh International, 1958, 1961; //. Documenta, Kassel, 
1959; New Images of Man, The Museum of Modern Art, New 
York, 19.59; Art Since 1950, Seattle World's Fair, 1962. Lives in 


Born in Columbus, Ohio, 1927. Studied at Columbus Art School; 
Ohio State University, Columbus; Cranbrook Academy of Art, 
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 1949 received Fulbright grant; to 
Italy. 1954 returned to Italy. Has exhibited both in United States 
and Europe. Lives in Lucca, Italy. 

442. RECLINING GIRL, 1956. Bronze, L. 17". 
Signed at bottom, L. Ziegler/Roma/1956. 

Page 199 

435. RECLINING FIGURE. Bronze, L. 23", 1/6. 

436. HEAD. 1954. Bronze, H. 17". 
Signed on rear, /'/T'. 

437. FIGURE WITH RAISED ARMS. 1956-57. Page 70 
Bronze, H. 70%". Signed near rim of base, FW. 

nsstt' ZARKIIV'E 

Born in .'Smolensk, Russia, 1890. .Sent to Englanti at 16 to study 
English; attended sculpture classes instead. Worked as appren- 
tice in cornniercial sculpture studio; later studied at Regent 
Street Polytechnic. 1909 to l^aris, studied for six months at ficole 
des Beaux-Arts. First one-man I'xhibilion. Brussels, 1919. 1941- 
45 in New York. Returned to Paris, taught at .'\endeniie de la 
(irande r;haumiere. Executed mnruinicril hi tho^c killed in ImhuIi- 
ing of Rotterdam, 1953-54. Ki^ceived Inleruatioiuil .Sculpture 
Prize, Venire Biennale. 19.50; retrospective, Maison de la Pensee 
Fran(;aise, Paris, 1958. Lives in Paris. 

\VILI.IA.>I zoRArn 

Born in Eurburg, Lithuania, 1887. FamiU- emigrated to Ohio, 
1891. Studied at Cleveland School of Art. 1903-06; National 
Academy of Design and Art Students League, New York, 1907- 
09. Studied in Paris, 1910-11. 1912 settled in New York. First 
exhibited. Salon d'Automne, Paris, 1911. Represented in Armory 
Show, New York. 1913. 1922 gave up painting to devote self en- 
tirely to sculpture. Many public momimenls including relief for 
Municipal Court Building. New York. 1958. Numerous one-man 
exhibitions since 1912. Lives in New York Cilv. 

4-13. SETTING HEN. r. 19+6. Granite. 11. 14". 

4W. EVE. 1951. Granite. II. 26". 
Signed at rear. Zoracb. 

Page 170 
Page 170 

438. MOTHER AM) ( :illl,l). c. 1913. Marble. 11.23'-". Page 72 

Sifiiied on base, /.atlkinr. 

I.W. .STANDLNG FIGURE. ,'. 1925-28. Page 72 

Bronze. 1 1. 25's" (including base) . 

440. FEMALE TOUSO. Wood, II. 18' v'. Page 72 




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Chauvin, Louis 

Consagra, Pietro 

Cornell, Joseph 

Darriau, Jean-Paul 
Daumier, Honore 

de Creejl, Jose 

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Hoctin, Luce. "Ou en est I'art Italien d'aujourd'hui?", L'Oeit, Paris, no. 61, January, 1960, p. 65 

".Minguzzi in Suezia", Domus. Milan, no. .386. January, 1962, p. 26 

Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff. The New Decade: 22 European Painters and Sculptors, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 

19.55, pp. 90-91, with statement by the artist. 

Erben. Walter. Miro, New York, Braziller, 1959 

Greenberg, Clement. Joan Miro, New York, Quadrangle, 1948 

"Joan Miro's Sculptures", Formes, Paris, no. 21, January, 1932, p. 210 

"L'Oeuvre de Joan Miro de 1917 a 1933", Cahiers d^Art, Paris, special number, vol. 9, nos. 1-4, 1934 

Soby, James Thrall. Joan Miro, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959 

Graniantieri, TuUio. "Amedeo Modigliani e la scultura negra", Anteprima, Rome, November, 1948 

Jedlicka, Gotthard. "Modigliani als Plastiker", A'e(;e Ziiricher Zeitung, Ziirich, August 18, 1931 

Jedlicka, Gotthard. Amedeo Modigliani, Ziirich-Erlenbach, Eugene-Rentsch Verlag, 1953 

Lipchitz, Jacques. "I Remember Modigliani", Art News, New York, vol. 49, no. 10, February, 1951, pp. 26-29, 64-65 

Soby, James Thrall. Modigliani: Paintings, Drawings, Sculptures, New York, The Museum of Modern Art. 1951 

Arnheim, Rudolf. "The Holes of Henry Moore: On the Function of Space in Sculpture", Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 
Cleveland, vol. 7, September, 1948, pp. 29-38 

Clark, Sir Kenneth. "Henry Moore's Metal Sculpture", Magazine of Art, Washington, D. C, vol. 44, May, 1951, pp. 171-174 
Grohmann, Will. Henry Moore, Berlin, Rembrandt, 1960 


Henry Moore, New York, M. Knoedler and Co., 1962 

Neumann, Erich. The Archetypal World of Henry Moore, New York, Bollingen, 1959 

Ramsden, E. H. "Der Bildhaiier Henry Moore", Werk, Winterthur, vol. 34, no. 4, April. 1947, pp. 129-135 

Read, Sir Herbert. Henry Moore, Sculpture and Drauings, New York, Curt Valentin. 19-19; Sculptures since 1948, 

vol. 2, London, Lund Humphries, 1955 

Sweeney, James Johnson. Henry Moore, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1946 

Sylvester, A. D. B. "Evolution of Henry Moore's Sculpture", Burlington Magazine, London, vol. 90. June-July, 1948, 

pp. 158-165, 189-195 

Miiller, Robert Hoctin, Luce. "Miillcr", L'Oeil, Paris, no. 63, March, 1960, pp. 52-55 

Netter, Maria. "Der Eisenschmied Robert Miiller". Quudrum, Brussels, no. 7, 1959, pp. 121-130, 185, 192, 

with French and English summaries. 

Pieyre de Mandiargucs, Andre. "Robert Miiller", Art International, ZUrich, vol. 4, no. 2-3, 1960, pp. 33-40 

Solier, Rene de. "Robert Miiller", XXe Steele, Paris, new series 22, June, 1960. pp. 66-69 

Stahly, Francois. "Der Plastiker Robert Miiller", W'erk, Winterthur. vol. 42, August, 1955, pp. 262-264 

Nadelman, File Kirstein, Lincoln. The Sculpture oj Elie Nadelnian, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1948 

Nakian, Reuben Nakian, Reuben. "Ego and Eternity, a Dialogue on Late Egyptian art". Art News, New York, vol. 59, November. 1960. pp. 28-30 
Goldwater, Robert. "Reuben Nakian", Quadrum, Brussels, no. 11, 1961, pp. 95-102, 185 

Hess, Thomas B. "Introducing the Steel Sculpture of Nakian: The Rape of Lucrece", Art Neivs, New York, vol. 57. 
November, 1958, pp. 36-39, 65-66 
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Nevelson, Louise "Private Myth, a Symposium", Art News, New York, vol. 60, September, 1961. p. 45 

Kramer, Hilton. "Sculpture of Louise Nevelson", Arts, New York, vol. .32, June, 1958, pp. 26-29 
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Nivola, Costantino Gueft. 0. ".Sardinia and an Artist: Nivola's Sand Sculpture", Interior, New York, vol. 113, June, 1954, pp. 86-93 
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Noguchi, Isamu Ashton. Dore. "Isamu Noguchi", Arts ami Architecture, Los Angeles, vol. 76, August, 1959. pp. 14-15 
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Oliveira, Nathan Selz, Peter. New Images of Man, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959, pp. 112-116 

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AUoway, Lawrence. "London Chronicle", Art International, Ziirich, vol. 2, nos. 9-10, December, 1958-January, 1959, pp. 36, 101 

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Selz, Peter. New Images oj Man, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959, pp. 117-122 

Thwaites, John A. "Notes on Some Young English Sculptors", Art Quarterly, Detroit, vol. 15, no. 3, 1952, pp. 236-237 

Pai'ia, Philip "Sculpture Panel, part one", It Is, New York, no. 5, Spring, 1960, pp. 51-.56 

Frankfurter, Alfred. "In Search of Art History at the Carnegie", Art News, New York, vol. 60, December. 1961. p. 30 
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Penallia. Alicia Chevalier, Denys. "Reliefs et fontaines de Penalba", Aujourd'hui, Paris, vol. 5. September. 1960. p. 59 
Hoctin, Luce. "Penalba", L'Oeil, Paris, no. 63, March, 1960, pp. -18-51 
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Pevsner, Anioine Dreier, Katherine S., and others. Antvine Pevsner, Paris, Rene Drouin. 1917 
Massal. Rene. Anioine Pevsner el le Conslructivisme, Paris, Caracteres. 1956 

Olson. Ruth; (ihanin, Abraham. Naum Cabo-Antoine Pevsner, New York. The .Museum ol .Modern .\rl. 1918. 
With introduction by Herbert Reail. 
Peissi, Pierre. Antoinc Pevsner; Tribute hy a Friend, Neuebalel. fulititin> do C.riiTon, 1961 

Picasso, Pablo Argan, Ciulio Carlo. Scultura ili Picasso. Venice, .Mlieri. 1953. text in Italian and English. 

Barr. Alfreii II. Picasso: Fifly Years oj His Art, New York. The .Museum of Modern Art. 1946 

Boeek, Wilhelm; .Sabartes, Jaime. Picasso, New York, .Miranis. 19.55 

Kahnweiler, Daniel-Henry. The Sculptures oj Picasso. London. Rodney Phillips, 1949 

Kuhnweilir, Daniel-Henry. Picasso Ceramics. I lannover, Fackellriiger-Verlag, 1957 

Richardson, John. ri\. I'icnsso. an American Tribute, New York, 1962. Exhibition catalogue publish<'d by nine New Y ork galleries 

Poncet. Antoine Cueguen. Pierre, ".\nloine Poneet", Aujourd'hui. Paris, vol. 6. July, 1961, p. 26 
"KirchenlVnster in Baeiarat". IT'erk. Vi ijilirlhur. vol. 44. June, 1957, pp. 206-207 
"Kiinsllerisehcr Sehmuek", l( crk. vol. 14. March. 1957. p. 91 


Reder, Bernard Maslai. M. L. D. "Bernard Reder, Joyful Mystic, Relrospective Show at the Whitney", Apollo, London, vol. 75, October, 1961, 
pp. 119-121 
Rewald, John. Sculpture and Woodcuts of Reder, Florence, Sansoni, 1957 

Renoir, Augnste Haesaerts, Paul. Renoir, Sculptor, New York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1947 

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Richier, Germaine Arnason, H. H. Sculpture by Germaine Richier, Minneapolis, Walker Art Center, 1958 
Cassou, Jean. Germaine Richier, Paris, fiditions du Temps, c. 1961 

Gasser, Manuel. "Germaine Richier", Werk, Winterthur, vol. 33, no. 3, March, 1946, pp. 69-77 

Guth, Paul. "Encounter with Germaine Richier", Yale French Studies, New Haven, nos. 19-20, Spring, 1957-Winter, 1958, pp. 78-84 
Limbour, Georges. "Visite a un sculpteur: Germaine Richier", Arts de France, Paris, nos. 17-18, 1947, pp. 51-58 
Pieyre de Mandiargues, Andre. "L'humeur cruel de Germaine Richier", XXe Siecle, Paris, no. 8, January, 1957, pp. 45-48 
Selz, Peter. New Images of Man, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959, pp. 129-133 
Seller, Rene de. "Germaine Richier", Cahiers d'Art, Paris, vol. 28, 1953, pp. 123-129 

Rivers, Larry Kramer, Hilton. " 'Recent Sculpture U.S.A.' at The Museum of Modern Art", Arts, New York, vol. 33, June, 1959, p. 49 
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"Sculptures at Jackson", Art Neivs, New York. vol. 59. February, 1961, p. 15 

Robus, Hugo Brcuning, Margaret. "Jose de Creeft and Hugo Robus in Retrospect at the Whitney Museum", Arts, New York, vol. 34, 
June, 1960. pp. 50-51 
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Rodin, Auguste Rodin, Auguste. Art, New York, Dodd, 1928 

Rodin, Auguste. On Art and Artists, New York, Philosophical Library, 1957 

Aubert, Marcel. Rodin Sculptures, Paris, Editions Tel, 1952 

Bourdelle. fimile Antoine. La Sculpture et Rodin, Paris, Iimile-Paul, 1937 

Burckhardt, Garl. Rodin und das Plastische Problem, Basel, Schwabe, 1921 

Cladel, Judith. Rodin: The Man and His Art, New York, Century, 1917 

Elsen, Albert E. Rodin's Gates oj Hell, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1960 

Emde, Ursula. Rilke und Rodin, Marburg-Lahn, Verlag der Kunstgeschichtlichen Seminars, 1949 

Goldscheider, Cecile. "La genese d'une oeuvre: le 'Balzac' de Rodin", Revue des Arts, Paris, vol. 2, March, 1952, pp. 37-44 

Grautoff, Otto. Auguste Rodin. Leipzig, 1908 

Mauclair, Camille. Auguste Rodin, London, Duckworth, 1909 

Rilke, Rainer Maria. Auguste Rodin, Leipzig, Insel Verlag, 1917 

Auguste Rodin, New York, Phaidon, 1951, introduction by Sommerville Story. 

Rosati, James "Sculpture Panel, part one". It Is, New York, no. 5, Spring. 1960. pp. 51-56, 58 

Kramer, Hilton. "Sculptures of James Rosati", Arts, New York, vol. 33, March, 1959, pp. 26-31 

Kunitz, Stanley. "Sitting for Rosati, the Sculptor", Art News, New York, vol. 58, March, 1959, pp. 36-39, 65 

Rosso, Medardo Barbantini, Nino. Medardo Rosso, Venice, Neri Pozza, 1950 
Borghi, Nino. Medardo Rosso, Milan, Ed. de Milione, 1950 

Giedion-Welcker, Carola. ''Sublimierung und Vergeistigung der plastischen Form bei Medardo Rosso", Werk, Winterthur, 
vol. 41, no. 8, August, 1954, pp. 329-339, with English summary. 

Kramer, Hilton. ".Medardo Rosso", Arts, New York, vol. 34, December, 1959, pp. 30-37 
Papini, Giovanni. Medardo Rosso, Milan, Hoepli, 1945 
Soffici. Ardengo. Medardo Rosso, Florence, Vallecchi, 1929 
Vianello-Chiddo, Mario. "Ricordo di Medardo Rosso", La Biennale, Venice, no. 3, January, 1951, pp. 27-28 

Roszak, Theodore Roszak, Theodore. "Some Problems of Modern Sculpture", Magazine of Art, Washington, D. C, vol. 42, February, 1949, pp. 53-56 
February, 1949, pp. 53-56 

Roszak, Theodore. "In Pursuit of an Image", Quadrum, Brussels, no. 2, November, 1956, pp. 49-60 
Arnason, H. H. "Growth of a Sculptor", Art in America, New York, vol. 44, Winter, 1956, pp. 21-23, 61-64 
Arnason, H. H. Theodore Roszak, Minneapolis, Walker Art Center, New York, 1956 

Krasne, Belle. "A Theodore Roszak Profile", Art Digest, New York, vol. 27, no. 2, October 15, 1952, pp. 9-18 
Miller, Dorothy C, ed. 14 Americans, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1946, pp. 58-61 
Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff. Sculpture of the Twentieth Century, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1953, 
pp. 37, 46-47, 222, 232 
Selz, Peter. New Images of Man, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959, pp. 134-140 

Schmidt, Julius "New Talent U.S.A. : Sculpture", Art in America, New York, vol. 49. no. 1. 1961, pp. 42-43 
Julius Schmidt, New York, Otto Gerson, 1961, exhibition catalogue 

Seley, Jason Seley, Jason. "Budget-wise Sculpture: Casting from Originals at a Seventh of Normal Cost" 
September, 1956, p. 33 

Signori, Carlo Sergio Seuphor, Michel. "Le choix d'un critique", L'Oeil, Paris, no. 49, January. 1959, p. 30 

Design, Columbus, Ohio, vol. 58, 


Slivka, David 

Smith, David 

Stankiewicz, Richard 

Tovish, Harold 
Turnhull, William 

Uhlntann, Hans 

Valhtton, Felix 

Weber, Max 
Weinberg, Elbert 

Wotriiba, Fritz 

y.adkine. Ossip 

'/.ajar. Jack 

Zicglcr, Laura 

/.orach, II illiant 

Slivka, David. "Lost Wax Regained", Art News, New York, vol. 61. no. 1. March, 1962, pp. 36-39. 61-62 

"Sculpture Panel, part one", It Is, New York, no. 5, Spring, 1960, pp. 51-57, 59 

Tillim, Sidney. "Heads by Eight Sculptors at Great Jones Gallery", Arts, New York, vol. 36, October, 1961, pp. 36-38 

Cooke, H. Lester. "David .Smith". / 4 Soli, Venice, no. 1, January-February, 1955, pp. 13-15 

deKooning, Elaine. "David Smith Makes a Sculpture", Art Neus, New York, vol. 50, September, 1951, pp. 38-41, 50-51 

Greenberg, Clement. "David Smith", Art in .America, New York, vol. 44, Winter, 19.56, pp. 30-33, 66 

Hunter, Sam. "David .Smith", Museum of Modern Art Bulletin, New York, vol. 25, no. 1, 1957 

Kramer. Hilton. "The Sculi)ture of David Smith", Arts, New York, vol. 34, February, 1960, pp. 22-43 

Krasne, Belle. "A David Smith Profile", Art Digest, New York, vol. 26, no. 13, .-^pril 1, 1952, pp. 12-13, 26, 29 

Metzoflf, Stanley. "David Smith and Social Realism", Magazine of Art. Washington, D. C, vol. 39, March, 1946, pp. 98-101 

O'Hara, Frank. "David Smith: The Color of Steel", Art News, New York, vol. 60, December, 1961, pp. 32-34. 69, 70 

"Private Myth, a Symposium", .in Neivs, New York, vol. 60, September, 1961, p. 43 

Geist, Sidney. "Miracle in the Scrapheap". .4rt Digest, New York, vol. 28, December 1, 1953. p. 10 

"New Talent in the U.S.A.", Art in .America, New York. vol. 44, February, 1956, pp. 46-47 

Porter, Fairfield. ".Stankiewicz Makes a Sculpture", Art News, New York, vol. 54, September, 1955, pp. 36-39 

"Prospects for American Art", Arts, New York, vol. 30, September. 1956, pp. 16-17 

Sawin, Martica. "Richard Stankiewicz", ,4rts Yearbook 3, New York, 1959, pp. 156-159 

"Sculpture by Torch", Newsweek, New York, vol. 47, January 16, 19.56. p. 52 

Arnason, H. H. "Recent Art of the Upper Midwest: Universities as Centers of Art", .'in i 
vol. 42, no. 1, 1954, pp. 41-43 

.America, New York, 

AUoway, Lawrence. "Britain's New Iron Age", Art Neivs, New York, vol. 52, June, 1953, pp. 18-20 
Middlcton, Michael. "Huit sculpteurs britanniques". Art d^Aujourd'hui, Paris, no. 2, March, 1953, pp. 6. 18 
Seuphor, Michel. "Le choix d'un critique", L'Oeil, Paris, no. 49, January, 1959, p. 31 
Waldberg, Isabelle. "Essor de la sculpture anglaise", Numero, vol. 5, nos. 1-2, January-March, 1953, p. 12 

Grohmann, Will. "Hans Uhlmann", Arti Visive, Rome, vol. 1, 1955 

"New Berlin Group", Lije, New York, vol. 36, May 10, 1954, p. 144 

Ritchie, Andrew Carnduff. The New Decade, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1955, pp. 44-47 

Roh, Franz. "Zur neuen Plastik in Deutschland", Werk, Winterthur, vol. 47, March, 1960, p. 104 

Seel, Eberhard. "Hans Uhlmann", Das Kunstwerk, Baden-Baden, vol. 4, nos. 8-9, 1950, pp. 81, 82 

Hahnloser. Hedy. Felix Valhtton 7865-792.5, Zurich, Verlag 
Habnloser-Biibler, Hedy. Felix Vallotton et ses .Amis. Paris 

dcr Ziiricher Kunstgesellschaft, 1927-1928 

Goodrich, Lloyd C. Max Weber, New York, Whitney Museum of .'\merican Art, 1949 

Chaet, Bernard. "Studio talk: Direct Wax as a Sculptural Medium; Interview", Arts, New York, vol. 33, February, 1959, p. 67 
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February, 1955, pp. 28-30 

Canelti, Elias. Fritz Wotniba, Vienna, Briider Rosenbaum, 1955, with English text 

Hecr, Friedrich. Fritz Wotruba, Neuchatel. Ed. du Griffon, 1961. Contains "From the Private Notebooks" by tlie artist. 

Hofmann, Werner. "Uber das Werk Fritz Wotruba", Quadrum, Brussels, no. 10, 1961, pp. 55-64, 188, 192 

Muschik, Johann. "Der Bildbauer Fritz Wotruba", Das Kunstwerk, Baden-Baden, vol. 14, October, 1960, pp. 17.18, 24-30 

Salis, Jean-R. de. Fritz Wotruba, Zurich, liditions Craphis, 1948. Text in English, German. Fri'ncb. 

Selz, Peter. Neio Images of Man, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1959, pp. 146-149 

Gutniann, A. "Le groupe dans I'oeuvre dc Za<lkine", .Art et Decoration, Paris, vol. 58, October. 1930. pp. 113-122 

Haniniacher, A. M. Zadkine, Cologne, Berlin, Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 1954 

Ilumbourg, Pierre. Zadkine, Paris, Nouvelle Kevue Fran(;aise, c. 1930 

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Bidder, Andre H. P. dr. Zadkine. Paris, 1929 

"New Talent in the U.S..\.", Art in .America, .New York, vol. 44, February, 1956. p. 36 
Seldis, Henry J.; Wilke. Ulfert. The Sculpture of Jack Zajac, Los Angeles. Holland Press. 1960 
Wurdeinann, Helen. "Los .Angeles-- Success .Abroad". .Art in .America. .New \'ork. vol. -19, no. 2. 
"Jack Zajac". Studio, London, vol. 156, Sepleinber. 1958, pp. 84-85 

"Kxliihiliiiii al Knni-illci Galli-ry", Art News, New ^ cirk. vol. 58, October, 1959, p. 15 
"Kxhiliiliuii ul Knocdlcr Galli-ry". Arts, New York, vol. 34, October, 1959, p. 62 
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"Exhibition of Sculpture at Duveen-Graham". Arts, New York, vol. 31, November, 1956, p. 59 

Zorach, William. Zorach Explains Sculpture, New York, .American Artists Group, 1947 
Baur, John 1. II. It illiam Zorach, New York, Whitney Museum of .American ,Arl, 19.59 
W ingri'l. Paul S. 77ic Siulpture oj William Zorach, New ^'ork. Pitman, 19,38 

1961, p. 135 





Associate Curator 
Assistant Curator 

Thomas M. Messer 
Cynthia Fay 

Lawrence Alloway 
Louise Averill Svendsen 
Daniel Robbins 


Donna Butler 

Arlene B. Dellis 

Orrin Riley and Saul Fuerstein 

Robert E. Mates 

Business Administrator 
Administrative Assistant 
Office Manager 
Building Superintendent 
Head Guard 

Glenn H. Easton, Jr. 
Viola H. Gleason 
Agnes R. Connolly 
Peter G. Loggin 
George J. Sauve 

Director of the Exhibition 
Director oj the (Catalogue 

Thomas M. Messer 
II. fl. irnason 

Curator of the Joseph IL Uirshhorn Collection Abram Lerner 


Daniel Rohbins 
Carol Fuerstein 
Maurice Tuchman 



Oliver Baker 

Rudolph Burckhartlt 

Cleveland Museum of Art 

Cohen Photos 


Robert E. Mates 


Walter Rosenblum 


Stable Gallery 

Adolph Studly 

65. 201 left 

23. 29 left, 47 left. 48. 49 top. .52 right, 61, 62, 81 left. 
89 left, 100 top. 104. 107, 110, 152, 163 bottom, 165 top, 
168 top. 169, 170 top, 187 right. 188, 189 right, 197 bottom 

105 left. 183 bottom, 202. 203 bottom 

99 right 

40 left, 79, 134, 171 bottom. 173, 199 


17-21, 25, 26, 28, 31-33, 39 right, 40 right, 42, 44 top left, 
50, 54 top, 55, 64 right, 68, 70, 71, 73, 85, 87 top, 88, 90, 
93, 94, 101, 105 right. 106, 109 bottom, 114-117, 119 bottom, 
120, 121 left, 125, 129-131, 133, 136, 137, 138 bottom, 143, 
144 top, 146-151, 153 top, 154, 155, 156 bottom, 157, 159, 
163 top, 165 bottom, 168 bottom, 171 top, 172 right, 176-182, 
183 top. 186, 190-194. 195 top, 196, 198 right, 203 top 

24, 29 right, 35, 38, 41, 44 right, 47 right, 51, 52 left, 63, 
72 top, 75-78, 80, 81 right, 82 bottom, 83, 84 top, 86, 91 left, 
95. 96 top right, 99 left, 100 bottom. 112. 118. 121 right, 
124, 135 top, 139, 142, 144 bottom, 145, 1,58. 167, 170 bottom, 
172 left, 178, 184, 185, 192. 199 top. 201 left, 205 top 

49 bottom, 69 center, 113, 166, 197 top 



96 bottom right, 135 bottom 


Exhibition '62/6 October 3, 1962-Jnniiory 6. 1963 

5,000 copies oj this booh, dcsiiincil by Herbert Mailer, 

have been printed by John H. If athins (Uinipany 

in September V962 

for the Trustees of The So/ornon R. Guggenheim Foundation 

on the occasion of the exhibition 

^''Modern Sculpture from the Joseph //. Hirshhont Collection"